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Classical Historiography for Chinese History

General

  • Brokaw, Cynthia, and Kai-wing Chow, eds., Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.
  • Cole, James H., Updating Wilkinson: An Annotated Bibliography of Reference Works on Imperial China Published Since 1973. New York, 1991.
  • Cohen, Myron. Kinship, Contract, Community, and State: Anthropological Perspectives on China. Stanford University Press, 2005.
  • Crossley, Pamela, et al., eds., Empire at the Margins: Culture Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
  • Fairbank, John K, & Liu Kuang-ching, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 10 & 11. Vol. 10: Late Ch'ing 1800-1870; Vol. 11: 1800-1911. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978 & 1980.
  • Kirby, William, Man-houng Lin, James Chin Shih, & David Pietz, eds. State and Economy in Republican China: Handbook for Scholars. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001. Designed for scholars and students of twentieth-century China with important materials covering the Qing-Republican transition. First part surveys the holdings of major Chinese archives and collections bearing on the economic and business history of Republican China. Second, it reproduces a series of six sets of original documents to guide students and scholars through a reading of public and private documents of the twentieth century. Third, it surveys archives and documents to encourage research on state and economy issues in non-communist China.
  • Naquin, Susan. Peking: Temples and City Life,1400-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  • Perdue, Peter. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  • Qing dai wen ji pian mu fen lei suo yin 清 代 文 集 篇 目 分 類 索 引 (Classified index to collected essays from the Qing dynasty). Compiled in Taiwan, published by Tai lian guo feng chu ban she 臺 聯 國 風 出 版 社 , 1979. An excellent index to essays on the classics, histories, and many other topics in the literary collections of Qing scholars.
  • Struve, Lynn. The Ming-Qing Conflict, 1619-1683: A Historiography and Source Guide. Association of Asian Studies Monograph. Ann Arbor: Association of Asian Studies, 1998. Part 1 gives the 400 year historiographical record of the Manchu conquest from the early Qing to modern times; Part 2 presents an annotated bibliography of primary sources in Chinese, Manchu, Japanese, Korean, and European languages. The digital files of the Struve monograph, slightly amended and supplemented, have been posted in the ScholarWorks system of the Indiana University Libraries (IUScholarWorks). These files can easily be accessed on the worldwide web (1) through WorldCat, by clicking on the access link in the Internet Resources entry for this volume; or (2) simply by googling author/title keywords and opening the hit from  .
  • ---, ed. The Qing Formation in World-Historical Time. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2004.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Late Imperial China: A Research Guide. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1973.

Part I: Qing History

-- Qing Founding

  • Kessler, Lawrence D. K'ang-hsi and the Consolidation of Ch'ing Rule, 1661-1684. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
  • Michael, Franz. The Origin of Manchu Rule in China: Frontier and Bureaucracy as Interacting Forces in the Chinese Empire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1942.
  • Oxnam, Robert. Ruling From Horseback: Manchu Politics in the Obio Regency, 1661-1669. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.
  • Rawski, Evelyn. The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
  • Standaert, Nicolas, ed. Handbook of Christianity in China, Volume One: 635-1800. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2001.
  • Struve, Lynn, trans. Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
  • Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China. 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
  • Wang, Chen-main. The Life and Career of Hung Ch'eng-ch'ou (1593-1665): Public Service in a Time of Dynastic Change. Association for Asian Studies Monograph. Ann Arbor: Association for Asian Studies, 2000.

-- Biographic Information

  • Hummel, Arthur, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943. Biographies of Abahai, Ch'en Meng-lei, Cheng Ch'eng-kung, Dorgon, Galdan, Nien Keng-yao, Nurhaci, Oboi, O-erh-t'ai, Songgotu, T'ung Kuo-ch'i, Wu San-kuei, Yin-chen, Yueh Chung-ch'i. Taipei: Ch'eng Wen reprint, 1972.
  • Lee, Lily Xiao Hong, A.D. Stephanowska, Sue Wiles, & Clara Wing-Chung Ho.Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women : The Qing Period, 1644-1911. University of Hong Kong Libraries Publications, No 10. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E.Sharpe, 1998.
  • Li Yongpu, Quan guo ge ji zheng xie wen shi zi liao pian mu suo yin 全 國 各 級 政 協 文 史 資 料 篇 目 索 引 (Comprehensive index to Wen-shi tzu-liao articles: 1960-1990). Peking: Wen-shi chu ban she, 1992. Useful for locating memoirs by participants in modern Chinese events.
  • Spence, Jonathan D. Ts'ao Yin and the K'ang-hsi Emperor: Bondservant and Master. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966, 1988.
  • ---. Emperor of China: Self-Portrait of K'ang-hsi. New York: Knopf, 1974. Paperback edition New York: Vintage, 1975.

-- Central Government Institutions

For recent information about late imperial archives in China, see:

  • Chao Ming-chung, & Li Tso-ming. Zhongguo di er li shi dang an guan zhi nan 中 國 第 二 歷 史 檔 案 館 指 南 (Guide to the No. 2 Chinese Archives). Peking: Tang-an chu ban she, 1994. This guide with 800 pages of text plus a 130-page index is a significant expansion of the Archives' 1987 guide. Published under the auspices of UNESCO as a part of the ICA (International Council on Archives) guide series to the sources of Asian history.
  • Chu Chin-fu, chief compiler. Zhongguo dang an wen xian ci dian 中 國 檔 案 文 獻 辭 典 (Dictionary of Chinese primary sources in archives). Peking: Zhongguo ren-shi Press, 1994. Annotated bibliographical guide to published Chinese language primary source materials. Useful for planning historical research. 3,985 entries arranged chronologically by historical period.
  • Guo jia dang an ju 國 家 檔 案 局 (State Archives Bureau), comp. Zhongguo dang an guan ming lu 中 國 檔 案 館 名 錄 (Directory of Chinese National Archives). Peking: Dang an chu ban she, 1990. This guide in both Chinese and English includes an 170-page introduction to Chinese state archives at national and provincial levels and a 330-page directory of all state archives at county and district levels.
  • Qin Guojing 秦 國 經 . Zhonghua Ming Qing zhen dang zhi nan 中 華 明 清 珍 檔 指 南 (Guide to Chinese Ming-Qing precious archives), Beijing: Jen-min chu ban she, 1994. This guide was reprinted in May 1996. It is an excellent survey of Ming-Qing archives both in and outside mainland China and includes a valuable introduction to the holdings, internal organization, and usefulness of these archives.
  • Ye Wa, & Joseph W. Esherick. Chinese Archives: An Introductory Guide. China Research Monograph 45. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. In addition the following PRC provincial and municipal archives have published guides: Shanghai, Beijing, Anhui, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Chongqing (Sichuan), Heilongjiang, and Liaoning. The Jiangsu Provincial Archives has published a survey of all institutions whose original documents are kept there. Some Chinese archival records are available on CD ROM. The State Archives Bureau plans to publish 130 CD ROMs of archival records in the near future.

See also:

  • Antony, Robert, and Jane Kate Leonard, eds., Dragons, Tigers, and Dogs: Qing Crisis Management and the Boundaries of State Power in Late Imperial China. Ithaca Cornell University Press, 2005.
  • Bartlett, Beatrice. "The Ch'ing Central Government Archives: Provenance and Peregrinations," Committee on East Asian Libraries Bulletin 63 (October 1980): 25-33.
  • ---. Monarchs and Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing China, 1723-1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
  • Elman, Benjamin. A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  • Ku, Hung-ting. Grand Secretariat in Ch'ing China : A Chronological List. Chinese Materials Center, 1980.
  • Kutcher, Norman. Mourning in Late Imperial China: Filial Piety and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Metzger, Thomas A. The Internal Organization of Ch'ing Bureaucracy: Legal, Normative, and Communication Aspects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.
  • Miyazaki Ichisada. China's Examination Hell: The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China. Translated by Conrad Schirokauer. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.
  • Pei Huang. Autocracy at Work: A Study of the Yung-cheng Period, 1723-1735. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974.
  • Rudolph, Jennifer. "Creating a Personnel Base: Zongli Yamen Efforts to Penetrate the Qing Hierarchy." The Chinese Historical Review Volume 12 Number 2 Fall 2005: 202-229.
  • Sun, E-tu Zen. "The Board of Revenue in 19th Century China." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 24 (1962/63).
  • Torbert, Preston M. The Ch'ing Imperial Household Department: A Study of Its Organization and Principal Functions, 1662-1796. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.
  • Waley-Cohen, Joanna. Exile in Mid-Qing China: Banishment to Xinjiang, 1758-1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
  • Wang Yeh-chien. "The fiscal importance of the land tax during the Ch'ing period." Journal of Asian Studies 30 (1971): 829-842.
  • Wu, Silas. Communication and Imperial Centrol in China: The Evolution of the Palace Memorial System, 1693-1735. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.

-- Local Government

  • Andrade, Tonio. "Pirates, Pelts, and Promises: The Sino-Dutch Colony of Seventeenth-Century Taiwan and the Aboriginal Village of Favorolang." The Journal of Asian StudiesVol. 64, No. 2 (May, 2005): 295-321
  • Bodde, Derk, & Clarence Morris. Law in Imperial China. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1967.
  • Ch'u T'ung-tsu. Local Government in China Under the Ch'ing. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.
  • Hsiao Kung-chuan. Rural China: Imperial Control in the 19th Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1960.
  • Hu, Cheng. "Quarantine Sovereignty During the Pneumonic Plague in Northeast China (November 1910每April 1911)." Frontiers of History in China v. 5 no. 2 (June 2010): 294-339.
  • Kent, Guy, R. "Ideology and Organization in the Qing Empire." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 14 Number 4 2010: 355-377.
  • Kim, Hodong. Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford University Press, 2004.
  • Kwan, Man Bun. The Salt Merchants of Tianjin: State Making and Civil Society in Late Imperial China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2001.
  • Li, Huaiyin. Village Governance in North China, 1875-1936. Stanford University Press, 2005.
  • McMahon, Daniel. "Southern Shaanxi Offcials in Early Nineteeth-Century China." T'oung Pao Volume 95 Numbers 1-3 2009 2008: 120-166.
  • Reed, Bradley. Talons and Teeth: County Clerks and Runners in the Qing Dynasty. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  • Rowe, William T. Saving the World: Chen Hongmou and Elite Consciousness in Eighteenth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.
  • Shao, Qin. Culturing Modernity: The Nantong Model, 1890-1930. Stanford University Press, 2004.
  • Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. "The Evolution of Local Control in Late Imperial China," pp. 1-25 in Conflict and Control in Late Imperial China. Ed. by Frederic Wakeman, Jr., & Carolyn Grant. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
  • Wang, Di. Street Culture in Chengdu: Public Space, Urban Commoners, and Local Politics, 1870-1930. Stanford University Press, 2003.
  • Watt, John R. The District Magistrate in Late Imperial China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.
  • Zhang, Limin. "A Comparison of Local Autonomy in Shanghai and Tianjin in the Late Qing: From the Perspective of the Establishment of City Administrative Organizations."Frontiers of History in China v. 5 no. 2 (June 2010): 279-93.

-- The Elites and Literati 士大夫 Culture

  • Bai, Qianshen. Fu Shan's World: The Transformation of Chinese Calligraphy in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2003.
  • Berger, Patricia. Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.
  • Cao Xueqin 曹 雪 芹. The Story of the Stone (Hong lou meng 紅 樓 夢). Translated by David Hawkes. 5 volumes. New York: Penguin Books, 1973-1986.
  • Chang Chung-li. The Chinese Gentry; Studies on Their Role in 19th Century Chinese Society. Seattle: University Of Washington Press, 1955.
  • ---. The Income of the Chinese Gentry. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1962.
  • Ching, May-bo. "A Preliminary Study of the Theatres Built by Cantonese Merchants in the Late Qing." Frontiers of History in China v. 5 no. 2 (June 2010): 253-78.
  • Chow, Kai-wing. The Rise of Confucian Ritualism in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
  • ---. Publishing, Culture, and Power in Early Modern China. Stanford University Press, 2004.
  • Dott, Brian. Identity Reflections: Pilgramages to Mount Tai in Late Imperial China. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2005.
  • Durand, Pierre-Henri. Lettres at pouvoirs: Un proces litteraire dans la Chine imperiale. Paris: L'Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences socialies, 1992. Important study of the case of Dai Mingshi 戴 名 世 (1653-1713) and the circumstances of his execution.
  • ---, trans., Recueil de al montagne du Sud par Dai Mingshi. Paris: Gallimard, 1998. Translation of the work that was charged with lese majeste and led to Dai's public decapitation in 1713.
  • Elman, Benjamin A. From Philosophy To Philology: Social and Intellectual Aspects of Change in Late Imperial China. Cambridge: Harvard Council of East Asian Studies, 1984, 1990. 2nd edition, Los Angeles: UCLA Asia Institute Monograph Series, 2001.
  • ---. On Their Own Terms: Science in China, 1550-1900. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  • Esherick, Joseph, & Mary Rankin, eds. Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Finnane, Antonia. Speaking of Yangzhou: A Chinese City, 1550-1850. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2004.
  • Guo Qitao. Ritual Opera and Mercantile Lineage: The Confucian Transformation of Popular Culture in Late Imperial Huizhou. Stanford University Press, 2005.
  • Guy, R. Kent. The Emperor's Four Treasuries: Scholars and the State in the Late Ch'ien-lung Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.
  • Han, Seunghyun. "Shrine, Images, and Power: The Worship of Former Worthies in Early Nineteenth Century Suzhou." T'oung Pao Volume 95 Numbers 1-3 2009 2008: 167-195.
  • Ho Ping-ti. "The Salt Merchants of Yang-chou: A Study of Commercial Capitalism in 18th Century China." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 17 (1954): 130-168.
  • Ho, Virgil K.Y. "'To Laugh at a Penniless Man Rather Than a Prostitute'; The Unofficial Worlds of Prostitution in Late Qing and Early Republican South China." European Journal of East Asian Studies Mar2001 Vol. 1 Issue 1: 103-38.
  • Hu, Ying. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1898-1918. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  • Huang, Chin-shing. Philosophy, Philology, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Huang, Martin. Literati and Self-Re/Presentation: Autobiographical Sensibility in the Eighteenth-Century Chinese Novel. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.
  • Hummel, Arthur, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943. Valuable collection of biographies of leading Qing figures.
  • Huntington, Rania. Alien Kind: Foxes and Late Imperial Chinese Narrative. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003.
  • Judge, Joan. Print and Politics: "Shibao" and the Culture of Reform in Late Qing China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
  • Kwong, Luke S. K. "Self and Society in Modern China: Liu E (1857-1909) and 'Laocan youji.'" T'oung Pao Vol. 87 Fasc. 4/5 (2001): 360-392.
  • Li, Qiancheng. Fictions of Enlightenment: Journey to the West, Tower of Myriad Mirrors, and Dream of the Red Chamber. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2004.
  • Liu, Kwang-Ching, ed. Orthodoxy in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Liu, Lydia H. Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture, and Translated Modernity--China, 1900-1937. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
  • Man-Cheong, Iona. The Class of 1761: Examinations, State, and Elites in Eighteenth-Century China. Stanford University Press, 2004.
  • McDermott, Joseph P. A Social History of the Chinese Book: Books and Literati Culture in Late Imperial China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2006.
  • Meyer-Fong, Tobie S. Building Culture in Early Qing Yangzhou. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.
  • Meyer-Fong, Tobie. "The Printed World: Books, Publishing Culture, and Society in Late Imperial China." The Journal of Asian Studies Volume 66 Issue 03 August 2007: 787-817.
  • Miles, Steven B. "Creating Zhu 'Jiujiang': Localism in Nineteenth-Century Guangdong."T'oung Pao Vol. 90 Fasc. 4/5 (2004): 299-340.
  • Nivison, David. The Life and Thought of Chang Hsueh-ch'eng (1738-1801). Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966.
  • Pagani, Catherine. "Eastern Magnificence and European Ingenuity": Clocks of Late Imperial China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
  • Rankin, Mary. Elite Activism and Political Transformation in China: Zhejiang Province, 1865-1911. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986.
  • Roddy, Stephen. Literati Identity and Its Fictional Representations in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
  • Ropp, Paul S. Banished Immortal: Searching for Shuangqing, China's Peasant Woman Poet. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
  • Roy, David, trans. The Plum in the Golden Vase or, Chin P'ing Mei. Volume One: "The Gathering." Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  • Santangelo, Paolo. L*Amore in Cina. Attraverse alcune opere letterarie negli ultimi secoli dell*Impero. [Love in China: as seen from some literary works in the later centuries of Empire] Naples: Liguori Editore 1999.
  • Spence, Jonathan. Ts'ao Yin and the K'ang-hsi Emperor. Second edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Schmidt, J. D. Harmony Garden: The Life, Literary Criticism, and Poetry of Yuan Mei (1716-1798). London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
  • Teng, Emma. Taiwan's Imagined Geography: Chinese Colonial Travel Writing and Pictures, 1683-1895. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2004.
  • Volpp, Sophie. "The Literary Circulation of Actors in Seventeenth-Century China." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 61 No. 3 (Aug., 2002): 949-984.
  • Waley, Arthur. Yuan Mei: Eighteenth Century Poet. London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1956.
  • Wang, David Der-wei, and Shang Wei, eds. Dynastic Crisis and Cultural Innovation: From the Late Ming to the Late Qing and Beyond. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2005.
  • Wang, Hung-tai. "Information Media, Social Imagination, and Public Society during the Ming and Qing Dynasties." Frontiers of History in China v. 5 no. 2 (June 2010): 169-216.
  • Wang, Ying. "The Supernatural as the Author's Sphere: Jinghua Yuan's Reprise of the Rhetorical Strategies of Honglou Meng." T'oung Pao Volume 92 Numbers 1-3 2006: 129-161.
  • Wei, Hua. "How Dangerous Can the Peony Be? Textual Space, Caizi Mudan ting, and Naturalizing the Erotic." The Journal of Asian Studies Volume 65 Issue 04 November 2006: 741-762
  • Wei, Shang. Rulin waishi and Cultural Transformation in Late Imperial China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003.
  • Weidner, Marsha (ed.). Cultural Intersections in Later Chinese Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2001.
  • Wu, Cuncun. Homoerotic Sensibilities in Late Imperial China. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.
  • Wu Jingzi 吳 敬 梓. The Scholars (Ru lin wai shi 儒 林 外 史). Translated by H. Y. & Gladys Yang. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • Zhao, Jie. "Ties that Bind: The Craft of Political Networking in Late Ming Chiang-nan."T'oung Pao Volume 86 Numbers 1-3 2000: 136-164.
  • Zhu, Hu. "Jiangnan Gentry's Responses to 'The Great Famine in 1877每1878': The Famine Relief in North Jiangsu." Frontiers of History in China volume 3 number 4 December 2008: 612-37.

-- The Traditional economy

  • Antony, Robert J. Like Froth Floating on the Sea: The World of Pirates and Seafarers in Late Imperial South China. Berkeley: Institute for East Asian Studies, University of California, 2003.
  • Bell, Lynda. One Industry, Two Chinas: Silk Filatures and Peasant-Family Production in Wuxi County, 1865-1937. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
  • Bello, David. Opium and the Limits of Empire: Drug Prohibition in the Chinese Interior. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2005.
  • Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opium: Qing Prohibition in Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 62, No. 4 (Nov., 2003): 1109-1142
  • Cochran, Sherman, Inventing Nanjing Road: Commercial Culture in Shanghai, 1900-1945. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.
  • Bin Wong, R. "Formal and Informal Mechanisms of Rule and Economic Development: the Qing Empire in Comparative Perspective." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 5 Number 4 2001: 387-408.
  • Brokaw, Cynthia J. Commerce in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2007.
  • Elvin, Mark. The Pattern of the Chinese Past. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1973. Chapters on the Qing.
  • Brook, Timothy and Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (ed.). Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  • Grove, Linda, & Christian Daniels, eds., State and Society in China: Japanese Perspectives on Ming-Qing Social and Economic History. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1984.
  • Chia, Lucille. Printing for Profit: The Commercial Publishers of Jianyang, Fujian (11 th-17th Centuries). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center for Harvard-Yenching Institute, 2002.
  • Hao, Yen-p'ing The Commercial Revolution in Nineteenth-Century China: The Rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capitalism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Dai, Lianbin. "The Economics of the Jiaxing Edition of the Buddhist Tripitaka." T'oung Pao Volume 94 Numbers 4-5 2008: 306-359.
  • Dunstan, Helen. State or Merchant?: Political Economy and Political Process in 1740s China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006.
  • Ho Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368-1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
  • Glahn, Richard Von . "Foreign Silver Coins in the Market Culture of Nineteenth Century China." International Journal of Asian Studies Volume 4 Issue 1 January 2007 : 51-79.
  • Johnson, Linda Cooke. Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port, 1074-1858. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.
  • Guo, Songyi et al. "The Shanxi merchants in Beijing in the Qing Dynasty: An analysis based on 136 samples of merchants and their activities." Frontiers of History in Chinavolume 4 number 2 June 2009: 165-82
  • Hamashita, Takeshi. "Tribute and Treaties: East Asian Treaty Ports Networks in the Era of Negotiation, 1834-1894." European Journal of East Asian Studies Volume 1 Issue 1 March 2001: 59-88.
  • Leonard, Jane Kate, and John Watt, eds., To Achieve Security and Wealth: The Qing Imperial State and the Economy, 1644-1911. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.
  • Li, Bozhong. "Wages in Huating-Lou Counties in the 1820s [With Appendix: Weights and Measures]." Frontiers of History in China volume 3 number 4 December 2008: 578-611.
  • Lin, Man-houng. China Upside Down: Currency, Society, and Ideologies, 1808每1856. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006.
  • Madancy, Joyce. The Troublesome Legacy of Commissioner Lin: The Opium Trade and Opium Suppression in Fujian Province. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2004.
  • Mann, Susan. Local Merchants and the Chinese Bureaucracy, 1750-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987.
  • Marks, Robert. Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt: Environment and Economy in Late Imperial South China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Marme, Michael. Suzhou: Where the Goods of All the Provinces Converge. Stanford University Press, 2005.
  • Mazumdar, Sucheta. Sugar and Society in China: Peasants, Technology, and the World Market. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 1998.
  • Motono, Eiichi. Conflict and Cooperation in Sino-British Business, 1860-1 911: The Impact of the Pro-British Commercial Network in Shanghai. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
  • Paul豕s, Xavier. "Anti-Opium Visual Propaganda and the Deglamorisation of Opium in China, 1895每1937." European Journal of East Asian Studies Volume 7 Issue 2 September 2008: 229-262.
  • Perkins, Dwight H. Agricultural Development in China, 1368-1969. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1969.
  • Perkins, Dwight H., ed. China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975.
  • Pomeranz, Kenneth. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and The Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
  • Pong, David. Shen Pao-chen and China's Modernization in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Qi, Meiqin et. al. "The Temporal Characteristics of Border Trading Along the Great Wall During the Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of History in China volume 3 number 2 June 2008: 230-62.
  • Rawski, Thomas, & Lillian Li, eds., Chinese History in Economic Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Rowe, William. Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1796-1889. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984.
  • ---. Hankow: Conflict and Community in a Chinese City. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.
  • Rawski, Evelyn S. Agricultural Change and the Peasant Economy of South China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,1972.
  • Skinner, G. William, ed. The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1977.
  • Tang, Qiaotian et al. "Inter-Port Transshipment between Shanghai and Hankou in Foreign Trade: 1864每1930." Frontiers of History in China volume 4 number 4 December 2009: 632-52.
  • Wang Yeh-chien. Land Taxation in Imperial China, 1750-1911. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.
  • Will, Pierre-Eienne, R. Bin Wong, et al. Nourish the People: The State Civilian Granary System in China, 1650-1850. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 1991.
  • Willmott, W. E., ed. Economic Organization in Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972.
  • Wong, J.Y. Deadly Dreams: Opium and the Arrow War (1856-1860) in China. Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Wong, R. Bin. China Transformed: Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.
  • Yan, Hongzhong et al. "Economic Growth and Fluctuation in the Early Qing Dynasty: From the Perspective of Monetary Circulation." Frontiers of History in China volume 4 number 2 June 2009: 221-64.
  • Zelin, Madeline. The Magistrate's Tael: Rationalizing Fiscal Reform in Eighteenth-Century China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • ---, The Merchants of Zigong: Industrial Entrepreneurship in Early Modern China. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
  • Zheng, Yangwen, The Social Life of Opium in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Zhong, Weimin (Feng, Mei, tr). "The Roles of Tea and Opium in Early Economic Globalization: A Perspective on China's Crisis in the 19th Century." Frontiers of History in China volume 5 number 1 March 2010: 86-105.

-- Peasant life

  • Bays, Daniel, ed. Christianity in China, from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
  • Bernhardt, Kathryn. Rents, Taxes, and Peasant Resistance: The Lower Yangzi Region, 1840-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1992.
  • Bretelle-Establet, Florence. La Sant谷 en Chine du Sud (1898-1928). Paris: CNRS Editions, 2002.
  • Cohen, Paul. History in Three Keys: The Boxers As Event, Experience, and Myth. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
  • Daigle, Jean-Guy. "Challenging the Imperial Order: The Precarious Status of Local Christians in Late-Qing Sichuan." European Journal of East Asian Studies Volume 4 Issue 1 March 2005: 1-29.
  • Dunch, Ryan. Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of a Modern China, 1857-1927. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.
  • Esherick, Joseph. The Origins of the Boxer Rebellion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Freedman, Maurice. Chinese Lineage and Society: Fukien and Kwangtung. New York: Humanities Press, 1966.
  • Guo, Qitao. Exorcism and Money: The Symbolic World of the Five-Fury Spirits in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 2003.
  • Huang, Hongshan. et al. "The Operation and Modern Development of Qiliu Hospice During the Qing Dynasty in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces." Frontiers of History in Chinav. 4 no. 2 (June 2009): 265-91.
  • Huang, Philip C. C. The Peasant Economy and Social Change in North China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.
  • Huang, Zhifan, Shao, Hong. "The Life and Production of the Peasants in Huizhou from the Late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China: The Analysis Based on 5 day-to-day Accounts in Wuyuan County." Frontiers of History in China volume 4 number 3 September 2009: 460-9.
  • ---. The Peasant Family and Rural Development in the Yangzi Delta, 1350-1988. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990.
  • Lee, James & Cameron Campbell. Fate and Fortune in Rural China: Social Stratification and Population Behavior in Liaoning 1774-1873. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Little, Daniel. Understanding Peasant China. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
  • L邦 Kuanqing. et al. "Adopting an Heir: Widows' Heir Adoption and Related Legal and Social Issues in the Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of History in China volume 3 number 3 September 2008: 385, 387-405.
  • Malek, Roman SVD (ed.). The Chinese Face of Jesus Christ. Vol. 1. Monumenta Serica Monograph Series, no. 50. Sankt Augustin, Ger.: Institut Monumenta Serica and China-Zentrum, 2002.
  • Mungello, D. E. The Spirit and the Flesh in Shandong, 1650-1785. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.
  • Perdue, Peter. Exhausting the Earth: State and Peasant in Hunan 1500-1850. Cambridge: Harvard Council on East Asian Studies, 1987.
  • Potter, Sulamith Heins, & Jack Potter, China's Peasants: The Anthropology of a Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Prazniak, Roxann. Of Camel Kings and Other Things: Rural Rebels against Modernity in Late Imperial China. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999.
  • Reardon-Anderson, James. Reluctant Pioneers: China's Expansion Northward, 1644-1937. Stanford Unversity Press, 2005.
  • Reilly, Thomas H. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.
  • Shao, Hong. "Associations in Village Society in Jiangxi in the Ming-Qing Period." Chinese Studies in History Fall2001 Vol. 35 Issue 1: 31-61.
  • Skinner, G. W. "Marketing and Social Structure in Rural China (Part I)." Journal of Asian Studies 24 (1964): 3-43
  • ---. "Chinese Peasants and the Closed Community: An Open and Shut Case." Comparative Studies in Society and History 13 (1971) : 270-281
  • Smith, Arthur H. Village Life in China: A Study in Sociology. New York: F.H. Revell Company, 1899.
  • Smith, S. A.. Like Cattle and Horses: Nationalism and Labor in Shanghai, 1895-1927. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.
  • Sweeten, Alan Richard. Christianity in Rural China: Conflict and Accommodation in Jiangxi Province, 1860-1900. Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies, no. 91. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2001.
  • Wang, Jian et al. "Temple Community of Folk Religion in Jiangnan since the Ming and Qing Dynasties: Focus on Suzhou and Songjiang Areas." Frontiers of History in China v. 4 no. 4 (December 2009): 537-78.
  • Wei, Guangqi. et al. "Township/Village Administration from the Late Qing to the Warlord Period." Frontiers of History in China volume 1 number 1 January 2006: 97-123.
  • Wei, Huo. "Center and Periphery: The Expansion and Metamorphosis of Han Culture〞A Case Study of Stone Carvings in No. 1 Mahao Cave Tomb, Leshan, Sichuan Province, China." Frontiers of History in China volume 3 number 2 June 2008: 293-322.
  • Wolf, Margery. The House of Lim. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968.
  • Xu, Yue et al. "Sichuan's Promotion of Education and Activities of Felling Temple Trees in the Late Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of History in China v. 3 no. 3 (September 2008): 406-31.
  • Yu, Xinzhong et al. "Public Health in Qing Dynasty Jiangnan: Focusing on Environment and Water Supply." Frontiers of History in China v. 2 no. 3 (July 2007): 379-415.
  • Zhao, Shiyu. "Chinese Society in the 19th Century from Multiple Time-Space Perspectives: Case Studies in Regional Social History." Frontiers of History in China v. 4 no. 3 (September 2009): 323-39.
  • Zhou, Rong. "Relief Services for the Aged in Hunan and Hubei during the Ming and Qing Dynasties." Frontiers of History in China volume 1 number 4 December 2006: 544-62.

-- High Qing

  • Guy, R. Kent. The Emperor's Four Treasuries: Scholars and the State in the Late Ch'ien-lung Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.
  • Hummel, Arthur, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943. Biographies of A-kuei, Chang Kuang-ssu, Chang T'ing-yu Ch'ang-ling, E-le-teng-pao, Fu-k'ang-an, Ho Shen, Hung-li, Hung Liang-chi, Le-pao, Li Ch'ang-keng, Na-yen-ch'eng, Pi Yuan, Shu-ho-te, Sun Hsing-yen, Sun Shih-i, Te-leng-t'ai, Wang Ch'ang, Ying-ho, Yung-yen.
  • Kahn, Harold L. Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes: Image and Reality in the Ch'ien-lung Reign. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.
  • Naquin, Susan, & Evelyn Rawski. Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.
  • Nivison, David S. "Ho-shen and His Accusers: Ideology and Political Behavior in the 18th Century," pp. 209-243 in David Nivison & Arthur Wright ed. Confucianism in Action. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1959.
  • Peterson, Willard J. (ed.). The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800. Vol. 9, pt. 1, of The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Spence, Jonathan. Ts'ao Yin and the K'ang-hsi Emperor. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966, 1988.
  • Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. "High Ch'ing, 1683-1839," pp. 1-281 in James B. Crowley, ed.Modern East Asia. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1970.
  • ---. The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

-- Intellectual Trends

  • Ben-Dor, Zvi Benite. The Dao of Muhammad: A Cultural History of Muslims in Late Imperial China.. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2005.
  • Black, Alison H. Man and Nature in the Philosophical Thought of Wang Fu-chih. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1989.
  • Chin, Ann-ping, & Mansfield Freeman, trans. Tai Chen On Mencius. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
  • Chow, Kai-wing. The Rise of Confucian Ritualism in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
  • Durand, Pierre-Henri. Lettres et pouvoirs: Un proces litteraire dans la Chine imperiale. Paris: L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en sciences socialies, 1992.
  • Elman, Benjamin A. Classicism, Politics and Kinship: The Ch'ang-chou School of New Text Confucianism in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • ---. From Philosophy to Philology: Social and Intellectual Aspects of Change in Late Imperial China. Cambridge: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies, 1984, 1990.
  • ---. On Their Own Terms: Science in China, 1550-1900. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  • ---. "Jesuit Scientia and Natural Studies in Late Imperial China, 1600-1800." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 6 Number 3 2002: 209-232.
  • ---. "'Universal Science' Versus 'Chinese Science': The Changing Identity of Natural Studies in China, 1850-1930." Historiography East and West Volume 1 Number 1 2003: 68-116.
  • John Ewell, trans. Re-Inventing the Way: Dai Zhen's "Evidential Commentary on the Meanings of Terms in Mencius." Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1990.
  • Fogel, Joshua A. (ed.). The Role of Japan in Liang Qichao's Introduction of Modern Western Civilization to China. China Research Monograph, no. 57. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 2004.
  • Henderson, John B. Scripture, Canon and Commentary: A Comparison of Confucian and Western Exegesis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
  • ---. The Development and Decline of Chinese Cosmology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.
  • Goossaert, Vincent. "1898: The Beginning of the End for Chinese Religion?" The Journal of Asian Studies Volume 65 Issue 02 May 2006: 307-335.
  • Hummel, Arthur, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943. Biographies of Chi Yun, Chang Hsueh-ch'eng, Huang Tsung-hsi, Hui Tung, Ku Yen-wu, Liu Feng-lu, Mao Ch'i-ling, Tai Chen, Ts'ui Shu, Tuan Yu-ts'ai, Wang Fu-chih, Yen Jo-chu.
  • Janku, Andrea. "Preparing the Ground for Revolutionary Discourse from the Statecraft Anthologies to the Periodical Press in Nineteenth-Century China." T'oung Pao Vol. 90 Fasc. 1/3 (2004): 65-121.
  • Jia, Si. "Breaking through the 'Jargon' Barrier: Early 19th Century Missionaries' Response on Communication Conflicts in China." Frontiers of History in China v. 4 no. 3 (September 2009): 340-57.
  • Karl, Rebecca and Zarrow, Peter. Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in Late Qing China. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.
  • Lai, John T. P. "Doctrinal Dispute within Interdenominational Missions: The Shanghai Tract Committee in the 1840s." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Volume 20 Issue 03 July 2010: 307-317.
  • Levenson, Joseph R. Confucian China and Its Modern Fate: A Trilogy. Volume I, Part One, "The Tone of Early-Modern Chinese Intellectual Culture" (The Abortiveness of Empiricism; The Amateur Ideal). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.
  • Liang Ch'i-ch'ao. Intellectual Trends in the Ch'ing Period. Parts I & II. Translated by Immanuel C. Y. Hs? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
  • Liu, Lydia. The Clash of Empires: The Invention of China in Modern World Making. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.
  • Liu, Xun. "In Defense of the City and the Polity: The Xuanmiao Monastery and the Qing Anti-Taiping Campaigns in Mid-Nineteenth Century Nanyang." T'oung Pao Volume 95 Numbers 4-5 2009: 287-333.
  • Mak, George Kam Wah. "&Laissez-faire* or Active Intervention? The Nature of the British and Foreign Bible Society's Patronage of the Translation of the Chinese Union Versions." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Volume 20 Issue 02 April 2010: 167-190.
  • Metzger, Thomas A. Escape From Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and China's Evolving Political Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.
  • Ng, On-cho. Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642-1718) and Qing Learning. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.
  • Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. "The Price of Autonomy: Intellectuals in Ming and Ch'ing Politics,"Daedalus (Spring 1972): 35-70.
  • Overmyer, Daniel L. Precious Volumes: An Introduction to Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 49. Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 1999
  • Reinders, Eric. Borrowed Gods, Foreign Bodies: Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.
  • Robinson, Arthur G. "Pilgrims to Western Seats of Learning--China's First Educational Mission to the United States." Chinese Studies in History Summer2003 Vol. 36 Issue 4: 63-88
  • Vittinghoff, Natascha. "Readers, Publishers and Officials in the Contest for a Public Voice and the Rise of a Modern Press in Late Qing China (1860-1880)." T'oung Pao Vol. 87 Fasc. 4/5 (2001): 393-455.
  • Wang, Guanhua. In Search of Justice: The 1905-1906 Chinese Anti-American Boycott. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Wang, Gungwu. Anglo-Chinese Encounters Since 1800: War, Trade, Science, and Governance. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Widmer, Ellen. "Foreign Travel through a Woman' Eyes: Shan Shili's Guimao l邦xing ji in Local and Global Perspective." The Journal of Asian Studies Volume 65 Issue 04 November 2006: 763-791.
  • Wilhelm, Hellmutt. "Chinese Confucianism on the Eve of the Great Encounter," pp. 283-310 in Marius Jansen, ed. Changing Japanese Attitudes Toward Modernization. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.
  • Wang, T. "Construction of Yan Fu's View on Social History and the Turning of Modern History." Frontiers of History in China v. 2 no. 4 (October 2007): 547-65.
  • Ye, Xiaoqing and Eccles, Lance. "Anthem for a Dying Dynasty: The Qing National Anthem through the Eyes of a Court Musician." T'oung Pao Volume 93 Numbers 4-5 2007: 433-458.
  • Zhang, Shuhong. "Hanxue Shangdui: A Case Study on the Contentions between the Han School and the Song School in the Middle Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of History in China v. 1 no. 4 (December 2006): 563-89.
  • Zhang, X. "Conversations between China and the West: The Missionaries in Early Qing Dynasty and Their Researches on the 'Book of Changes'." Frontiers of History in China v. 2 no. 4 (October 2007): 469-87, 489-92.
  • Zhang, Xianqing et al. "The Metaphor of Illness: Medical Culture in the Dissemination of Catholicism in Early Qing China." Frontiers of History in China v. 4 no. 4 (December 2009): 579-603.
  • Zhang, Yufa. "Returned Chinese Students from America and the Chinese Leadership (1846-1949)." Chinese Studies in History Volume 35 Issue 3 Spring 2002: 52-87.
  • MONUMENTA SERICA MONOGRAPH SERIES, Vol. XXXV: "Western Learning" and Christianity in China: The Contribution and Impact of Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1592?666), edited by Roman Malek, s.v.d.Institut Monumenta Serica and China-Zentrum, Sankt Augustin: Steyler Verlag, Nettetal 1998, 2 vols., 1259 pp. Illustr. ISBN 3-8050-0409-5 � ISSN 0179-261X
    • This collection presents the proceedings of the international conference in Sankt Augustin held in 1992, commemorating the four hundredth anniversary of the birth of Johann Adam Schall von Bell, s.j. All articles are printed in their original language, i.e., English, Chinese, German and French. Additional contributions on the subject have been included. The book is supplemented with summaries in English and Chinese, as well as with numerous illustrations, a bibliography, and a general index with a glossary.
    • Introduction: Roman Malek, Johann Adam Schall von Bell and His 1992 Anniversary;
    • I. Johann Adam Schall von Bell: The Person and His Context: Peter Hans Kolvenbach, Johann Adam Schall von Bell--A Jesuit; Arnold Sprenger, Johann Adam Schall Educational Foundation and the Intellectual Climate of His Time; Lu Yao, Three Issues on Johann Adam Schall von Bell; Claudia von Collani, Johann Adam Schall von Bell: Weltbild und Weltchronologie in der Chinamission im 17. Jahrhundert; Ma Biao, Johann Adam Schall and Chinese Traditional Philosophy; John W. Witek, Johann Adam Schall von Bell and the Transition from the Ming to the Ching Dynasty; Liu Mengxi, Johann Adam Schall旧 Role in the Reform Period; Hao Zhenhua, Johann Adam Schall and the First Dutch Diplomatic Mission to the Qing Empire; Giovanni Stary, Mandschurische Inschriften und Zeugnisse zu Johann Adam Schall von Bell; Edward J. Malatesta, The Lost Sheep of Adam Schall. Reflections on the Past and Present of the Shala Cemetery;
    • II. Johann Adam Schall von Bell and His Chinese Contemporaries: Albert Chan, Johann Adam Schall in T学n Ch寛en旧 Pei-yu lu and in the Eyes of His Contemporaries; Chen Min-sun, Johann Adam Schall, Hs?Kuang-ch寛, and Li T寛en-ching; Eugenio Menegon, Yang Guangxian旧 Opposition to Johann Adam Schall: Christianity and Western Science in His Work Bu de yi; Ren Dayuan, Philippe Wang Zheng: A Scientist, Philosopher, and Catholic in Ming Dynasty China;
    • III. Johann Adam Schall von Bell--Astrology, Astronomy, and Calendar: Claudia von Collani, Theologie und Astronomie in China; Tiziana Lippiello, Astronomy and Astrology: Johann Adam Schall von Bell; Huang Yi-Long, East磱est Cultural Confrontation and Compromise in Early Ch寛ng China. A Case Study on Johann Adam Schall旧 Civil Calendars; Zhang Dawei, The "Calendar Case" in the Early Qing Dynasty Re-examined; Jiang Xiaoyuan, Johann Adam Schall von Bell and the Ptolomaic Astronomy in China; Keizo Hashimoto, Johann Adam Schall and Astronomical Works on Star Mappings; Gu Ning, Johann Adam Schall von Bell and His Horizontal Sundial of the New Western Calendar; Minako Debergh, Les cartes astronomiques des missionaires J廥uites en Chine: de Johann Adam Schall von Bell, Ignaz K鐷ler et leurs filiations en Cor嶪 et au Japon; Yi Shitong, Newly Found Astronomical Instruments Concerning Johann Adam Schall von Bell; Nicole Halsberghe, Quotations from the Works of Johann Adam Schall in the Yixiang zhi of Ferdinand Verbiest; Jean-Claude Martzloff, Notes on Planetary Theories in Giacomo Rho旧 Wuwei lizhi;
    • IV. "Western Learning" in China--The Contribution of Johann Adam Schall von Bell: Benjamin A. Elman, The "Chinese Sciences" in Policy Questions from Confucian Civil Examinations During the Late Ming; Catherine Jami, Mathematical Knowledge in the Chongzhen lishu; Pan Jixing, Johann Adam Schall von Bell and the Spread of Georgius Agricola旧 De re metallica in Late Ming China; Zhang Zhishan, Johann Adam Schall von Bell and His Book On Telescopes; Sun Xi, Johann Adam Schall von Bell und die westlichen 强euerwaffen" in China; Isaia Iannaccone, The Geyuan baxian biao (Trigonometric Tables) and Some Remarks about the Scientific Collaboration between Schall von Bell, Rho, and Schreck; Yang Xiaohong, Die Haltung der chinesischen Intellektuellen zur Xixue (Westliche Lehre) am Ende der Ming- und Anfang der Qing-Dynastie. Ein Vergleich zwischen Matteo Ricci und Johann Adam Schall im Hinblick auf ihre Methode der 张vangelisierung durch Wissenschaft"; Zhang Xiao, Modern Scientific Culture Introduced into China by Catholic Missionaries During the Ming and the Ch寛ng Dynasties;
    • V. The Religious Writings and Activities of Johann Adam Schall von Bell: Chen Song, Johann Adam Schall von Bell in China: "Propagating Catholicism Through Academic Activities"; Adrian Dudink, The Religious Works Composed by Johann Adam Schall, Especially His Zhuzhi qunzheng and His Efforts to Convert the Last Ming Emperor; Zhao Pushan, Johann Adam Schall and His Work Zhuzhi qunzheng; Xiao Liangqiong, Schall and His Chinese Work Zhuzhi qunzheng; Angelo S. Lazzarotto, Wide Apostolic Concern of Johann Adam Schall; Horst Rzepkowski, Der Beitrag von Johann Adam Schall von Bell zur einheimischen christlichen Kunst;
    • VI. Johann Adam Schall von Bell as a Literary and Iconographic Figure: Gregory Blue, Johann Adam Schall and the Jesuit Mission in Vondel旧 Zungchin; Adrian Hsia, Der literarische Beitrag zur Darstellung der Jesuitenmission in China, insbesondere des Wirkens von Johann Adam Schall von Bell; Chang Sheng-ching, Das Portr酹 von Johann Adam Schall von Bell in Athanasius Kirchers China illustrata;
    • VII: Johann Adam Schall von Bell: Reception and Impact: Hao Guiyuan, The Differences and Similarities of Thought and Culture between China and the West Reflected in Works Written by Jesuits in Chinese in the Early Period; Yang Yi, Johann Adam Schall旧 Writings in China; Wang Bing, An Introduction of Some Chinese Records and Researches on Johann Adam Schall von Bell旧 Scientific Activities; Yoshida Tadashi, The Works of Johann Adam Schall von Bell in Tokugawa Japan; Gu Weimin; Erl酳terungen und Forschungen zu Johann Adam Schall von Bell in China im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert; Tatjana A. Pang, Russian Evidence of Johann Adam Schall von Bell;
    • VIII. The Encounter of Europe and China: Other Examples: Noel Golvers, The Development of the Confucius Sinarum Philosophus Reconsidered in the Light of New Material; Rita Widmaier, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz?Streben nach Harmonie zwischen China und Europa; Gerlinde Gild, The Introduction of European Musical Theory during the Early Qing Dynasty. The Achievements of Thomas Pereira and Theodorico Pedrini; Paul Shan, Science and Faith in China Today.

Part II: Biographic Information

-- General

  • Twitchett, Dennis. " Chinese Biographical Writing," pp. 95-114 in Beasley, W.G., & E.G. Pulleyblank, Historians of China and Japan. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 94-105. Other articles in English on Chinese biographies are cited on p. 97

-- Indexes to Biographical Collections

(See Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, pp. 178-185.)

  • Fang Chao-ying & Tu Lien-che, Index to 33 Ch'ing Biographic Collections (San shi san zhong Qing dai zhuan ji zong he yin de 三 十 三 種 清 代 傳 記 綜 合 引 得). Harvard Yenching Index. See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 104. This is a good place to go for the list of these 33 biographic collections. Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 181.
  • Hakki tsushi retsuden sakuin 八 旗 通 志 列 傳 索 引 (Index to biographies in the Pa-ch'i tong-chih). Tokyo, 1965. (1790 edition of this work on the Eight Banners). Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 182.
  • Qing shi 清 史 index to biographies, in last volume, Taipei edition.
  • Painters: Biographies of Ch'ing Dynasty Painters in Three Collections (Qing hua zhuan ji yi san zhong fu yin de清 畫 傳 集 義 三 種 附 引 得) Harvard Yenching Index. Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 185.

-- Biographic Collections

  • Hummel, Arthur, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943. Index. See Index to 33 Qing Collections, above.
  • Li Huan 李 桓, Guo chao qi xian lei zheng chu bian 國 朝 耆 獻 類 徵 初 編, 24 vols. Reprinted. (Described in Ho Ping-ti. Ladder of Success in Late Imperial China: Aspects of Social Mobility 1368-1911. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962, p. 95.
  • Qing dai qi bai ming ren zhuan 清 代 七 百 名 人 傳 (Biographies of 700 men of the Qing period). 1937. Has useful appendices, including classification by native place.
  • Qing dai hua shi 清 代 畫 史 (History of Qing painters). 8,000 Ming-Qing artists, biographies. 1970 Taipei reprint.
  • Qing shi 清 史, Lie zhuan 列 傳 section.
  • All gazetteers have several sections for biography, giving information on famous native sons of the area, and of famous officals who served there.
  • Many biographic collections were compiled based on native place, e.g. "Famous natives of T'ung-ch'eng county, Anhwei" etc.

-- Nian pu 年 譜 (Chronological Biographies)

These give biographic information, and often quote the subject's written works (esp. memorials)

  • Gu Tinglong 顧 廷 龍 . Zhongguo li dai ren wu nian pu kao lu 中 國 歷 代 人 物 年 譜 考 錄 . Beijing: Zhonghua Bookstore, 1992.
  • Lai Xinxia 來 新 夏 , compiler. Jin san bai nian ren wen nian pu zhi jian lu 近 三 百 年 人 文 年 譜 知 見 錄. Shanghai, People's Press, 1983.
  • Union catalog of Chinese genealogies by the Shanghai Library. It now has 60,000 items. It will be published by Shanghai gu ji chu ban she in book form in late 2006. Data will be available online free after a decent interval to allow the publisher to recoup its investment.
  • Wang Baoxian, Li dai ming ren nian pu zong mu 歷 代 名 人 年 譜 總 目. Index to nian pu. See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 101.

-- Commemorative writings, epitaphs, etc.

  • Chen Naiqian 陳 乃 乾, Qing dai bei zhuan wen tong jian 清 代 碑 傳 文 通 檢 (Peking, 1959; Taipei reprint under slightly different title) See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 104; Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 182).
  • Jiang Liangfu 姜 亮 夫, Li dai ren wu nian li bei zhuan zong biao 歷 代 人 物 年 里 碑 傳 總 表. Shanghai, 1959. See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 100.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 94-95.

-- Name lists

(see also civil and military examination bibliographies)

  • See Nathan, Andrew. Modern China 1840-1972: An Introduction to Sources and Research Aids. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1973, pp. 27-28.
  • For lists of degree-holders, see Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, pp. 175-76. Available for entire Qing for jin shi 進 士. See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 105. Some ju ren 舉 人, gong sheng 貢 生, and sheng yuan 生 員 lists exist. See Ho Ping-ti, Ladder of Success in Late Imperial China: Aspects of Social Mobility 1368-1911. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962, p. xi. Gazetteers also give names (and sometimes other information) of degree holders.
  • For lists of office holders, Qing shi has tables for many top posts listed in chronological sequence. Local gazetteers list names of office holders, though these lists are frequently incomplete. Chin-shen ch'uan-shu, regularly issued lists of office holders. See Metzger, Thomas. Internal Organization of Ch'ing Bureaucracy: Legal, Normative, and Communication Aspects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 49, 154.

-- Genealogies

See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 98.

  • Gu Tinglong 顧 廷 龍 . Zhongguo li dai ren wu nian pu kao lu 中 國 歷 代 人 物 年 譜 考 錄 . Beijing: Zhonghua Bookstore, 1992.
  • Telford, Ted, et al., compilers. Chinese Genealogies of the Genealogical Society of Utah: An Annotated Bibliography. Taipei: Chung Wen Publishing House, 1983.
  • Japanese translation: Kindo shuppansha 近 藤 出 版 社 , 1988.
  • Taga Akigoro 多 賀 秋 五 郎 . Sofu no kenkyu 宗 譜 の 研 究 (A study of genealogies). Tokyo: Toyo bunko, 1960. LOOK THROUGH.
  • van der Sprenkel, "Geneological Registers," pp. 83-98, in Donald Leslie, C. Mackerras, & Wang Gungwu eds.Essays on the Sources for Chinese History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.
  • Zhao Zhenchi 趙 振 績 , & Chen Meigui 陳 美 桂 , compilers. Taiwan qu zu pu mu lu 臺 灣 區 族 譜 目 錄 (Catalog of genealogies from Taiwan). Taipei, 1987.
  • Zheng, Zhenman (Szonyi, Michael trans.). Family Lineage Organization and Social Change in Ming and Qing Fujian. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2001.
  • See also the following catalogs from Libraries with Asian collections: Library of Congress, Columbia University, Morman Genealogical Library.

Part III: Government Administration

-- Administrative law

  • Bernhardt, Kathryn and Huang, Philip C. C. (ed.).  Law, Society, and Culture in Late Imperial China . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.

-- (1) Annotated Bibliography Of Books On Qing Government

  • Ma Fengchen. Qing dai xing zheng zhi du yan jiu can kao shu mu 清 代 行 政 制 度 研 究 參 考 書目, 1935. See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 135.

-- (2) Useful Reference Books

  • Brunnert, H. S., & V. V. Hagelstrom. Present Day Political Organization of China. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1912. Basic for government posts.
  • E-tu Zen Sun, Ch'ing Administrative Terms: A Translation of Terminology of the Six Boards with Explanatory Notes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.

-- (3) Hui dian 會 典 (Collected Statutes) and Hui dian shi li 會 典 釋 例 (Supplimentary Regulations)

  • Read about edition, contents in:
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973. pp. 134-35.
  • Fairbank, John K. Ch'ing Documents: An Introductory Syllabus. Third Edition, revised and enlarged. Harvard East Asian Monograph. Cambridge: East Asia Research Center, Harvard University, pp. 575-76.
  • Preston, C. F. "Constitutional Law of the Chinese Empire," China Review 6 (1877-78): 13-29.
  • Metzger, Thomas A. The Internal Organization of Ch'ing Bureaucracy: Legal, Normative, and Communication Aspects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 212-221.

a. Provincial regulations:

  • Chen, Fu-mei Chang. "Provincial Documents of Laws and Regulations in the Ch'ing Period," Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i3:6 (1976): 28-48.

b. Board regulations [Such-and-such a board's ze li  則 例]

  • 19th century editions exist for all the boards (Punishments?)
  • Board of Civil Office 1790, 1820, 1843, 1872 See Metzger, Thomas A. The Internal Organization of Ch'ing Bureaucracy: Legal, Normative, and Communication Aspects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 352 ff.
  • Board of Revenue 1776, 1796, 1838, 1851, 1865
  • Board of Rites 1845
  • Board of Works 1798, 18??
  • Regulations for other government departments:
  • Grain Tribute administration 1845
  • Green Standard Army 1801, 1825
  • Imperial Clan Court 1812, 1840
  • Mongolian Superintendancey 1789, 1817, 1841, 1891, 1908

c. Salt Monopoly:

  • Changlu 1726, 1805
  • Hedong 1727
  • Liang huai 1693, 1728, 1748, 1806, 1892, 1904
  • Liang zhe 1729
  • Shandong 1725
  • Sichuan 1883

d. Administrative punishments statutes [chu fen ze li 處 分 則 例]

  • Much incorporated in legal code
  • For the Six Boards: Liu bu chu fen ze li 六 部 處 分 則 例, 1828, 1869, 1887
  • See Metzger, Thomas A. The Internal Organization of Ch'ing Bureaucracy: Legal, Normative, and Communication Aspects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 350-56.

-- (4) Penal law [Da Qing lu li 大 清 律 例 ]

  • READ: Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 138-39.
  • Derk Bodde, "Legal Sources," pp. 99-103 in Donald Leslie, C. Mackerras, & Wang Gungwu eds. Essays on the Sources for Chinese History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.
  • Sommer, Matthew H. Sex, Law, and Society in Late Imperial China. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  • Best Chinese edition of the Code to buy (Complete and annotated):
  • Du li cun yi 讀 例 存 疑 (See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973. p. 139)
  • For case books: Xing an hui lan 刑 案 會 覽. See Bodde, Derk, & Clarence Morris, Law in Imperial China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967. Columbia University has digitized their 1902 version of the 30 vol.Xing an xin bian 刑 案 新 編, available without restrictions from their catalog.
  • For recent studies, see above, Legal History.

-- Administrative manuals, magistrates' manuals

  • READ Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 135-36.
  • Look at sample: "[Instructions to magistrates]" Qin ban zhou xian shi yi 欽 版 州 縣 事 宜

-- Merchants' manuals

  • Brook, Timothy. Geographical Sources of Ming-Qing History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1988.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. "Chinese Merchant Manuals and Route Books." Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i 2:9 (1973): 8-34.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 122-24.

-- Encyclopedias

  • These are less useful for the Qing since they are excerpts from sources that survive in full (especially the Hui dian 會 典 Dong hua lu 東 華 錄 Sheng xun 圣 訓 etc.
  • See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973 for the four Qing encyclopedias in the "Ten T'ung" 十 通 set, pp. 126-28
  • The Gu jin tu shu ji cheng 古 今 圖 書 集 成 (1725) which uses more primary sources, is good. There is an index by Lionel Giles (1911).
  • Huang chao tong dian 皇 朝 通 典 (to 1785)
  • Huang chao tong zhi 皇 朝 通 志 (to 1785)
  • Huang chao wen xian tong kao 皇 朝 文 獻 通 考 (to 1785)
  • Huang chao xu wen xian tong kao 皇 朝 續 文 獻 通 考 (1786-1911)
  • Indexes to 1936 Commercial Press editions
  • Huang chao zhang gu hui bian 皇 朝 掌 故 匯 編 (1902) in same tradition
  • For other encyclopedias, see Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 162-69; Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, pp. 94-95.
  • Fairbank, John K. Ch'ing Documents: An Introductory Syllabus. 3rd edition. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1970, pp. 84-92.

-- Collections of essays on government

  • Huang chao jing shi wen bian 皇 朝 經 世 文 編. 1825. This collection is discussed in:
  • Jin dai Zhongguo yan jiu wei yuan hui 近 代 中 國 研 究 委 員 會, Jing shi wen bian zong mu lu 經 世 文 編 總 目 錄 (Complete indexes to Jing shi wen bian).
  • Metzger, Thomas A. The Internal Organization of Ch'ing Bureaucracy: Legal, Normative, and Communication Aspects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 26-27.
  • Mitchell, Peter. A Further Note on the Huang chao jing shi wen bian. Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i 2:3 (1970): 40-46.
  • Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, pp. 119-122.
  • Wakeman, Frederic. "The Huang chao jing shi wen bian." Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i 清 史 問 題 1:10 (1969): 8-22.

-- Agricultural technology and water control

  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 159-63.
  • Zhao, Zhen. "Agricultural Reclamation Policy and Environmental Changes in the Northwest China during the Qing Dynasty."Frontiers of History in China v. 1 no. 2 (June 2006): 276-91.
  • Water control:
    • Bibliography by Mao Nai-wen. Cited in Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 163.
    • Needham, Science and Civilization, IV:3 pp. 211-378
  • For works on rivers, dikes, canals: Reprint series (Taiwan), Zhongguo shui li yao ji zong bian 中 國 水 力 要 紀 叢 編
  • Agricultural treatises:
    • Wang Yu-hu. Zhongguo nong xue shu lu. Shanghai, 1964. Cited in Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 159.
    • Almanacs are often useful for agricultural information
    • Technology: Sun translation of Tian gong kai wu 天 工 開 物 (1637) - Chinese Technology in the 17th century. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1966.

-- Land deeds, contracts, etc.

  • Bernhardt, Kathryn. Women and Property in China, 960-1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
  • Chen, Fu-mei Chang, & R. Myers, "Customary Law and the Economic Growth of China during the Ch'ing Period," CSWT 3:5 (1976) 1-32.
  • Buoye, Thomas. Manslaughter, Markets, and Moral Economy: Violent Disputes over Property Rights in Eighteenth-Century China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Fu Yiling, Ming Qing nong cun she hui jing ji 明 清 農 村 社 會 經 濟 (Peking, 1961) See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 158.
  • Islamoglu, Huri. "Modernities Compared: State Transformations and Constitutions of Property in the Qing and Ottoman Empires."Journal of Early Modern History Volume 5 Number 4 2001: 353-386.
  • Liang, Linxia. "Rejection or Acceptance: Finding Reasons for the Late Qing Magistrate's Comments on Land and Debt Petitions."Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Volume 68 Issue 02 June 2005: 276-294.
  • Long, Denggao et al. "The Diversification of Land Transactions in the Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of History in China v. 4 no. 2 (June 2009): 183-220.
  • Macauley, Melissa Ann. Social Power and Legal Culture: Litigation Masters in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
  • Yuji Muramatsu, Kindai Konan no sosan: Chugoku jinushi seido no kenkyu (Landlord bursaries of the lower Yangtze delta region in recent times: studies of the Chinese landlord system). Tokyo, 1970.
  • Wakefield, David. Fenjia: Household Division and Inheritance in Qing and Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 158-59.

-- Manchu sources and ethnic issues

Manchu sources are most useful for: Early Qing period (and late Ming); affairs concerning Manchus, Mongols, & problems of the north and northwest frontier for the 17th and 18th centuries.

  • Atwill, David G. "Blinkered Visions: Islamic Identity, Hui Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873."The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 62, No. 4 (Nov., 2003): 1079-1108
  • Bartlett, Beatrice. "Books of Revelations: The Importance of the Manchu Language Archival Record Books for Research on Ch'ing History," Late Imperial China 6, 2 (December 1985): 25-34.
  • Clarke, Michael. "The Problematic Progress of 'Integration' in the Chinese State's Approach to Xinjiang, 1759 - 2005." Asian Ethnicity Oct2007 Vol. 8 Issue 3: 261-289.
  • Crossley, Pamela K. A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.
  • Crossley, Pamela. Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990.
  • ---, A Transluscent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.
  • ---, & Evelyn Rawski. "A Profile of the Manchu Language in Ch'ing History," HJAS 53, 1 (1993): 63-102.
  • Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 59 No. 3 (Aug., 2000): 603-646.
  • Elliot, Mark C. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.
  • Enatsu,Yoshiki. Banner Legacy: The Rise of the Fengtian Local Elite at the End of the Qing. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2004.
  • Farquar, David M. "Emperor as Bodhisattva in the Governance of the Ch'ing Empire." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 38(1):5-34, 1978.
  • Fletcher, Joseph. "Manchu Sources," pp. 141-46 in Donald Leslie, C. Mackerras, & Wang Gungwu eds. Essays on the Sources for Chinese History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973..
  • F?ret, Philippe. Mapping Chengde: The Qing Imperial Landscape Enterprise. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000.
  • Li Hsueh-chih. "Manchu Sources in Taiwan," CSWT 1:5 (1967): 2-6.
  • Giersch, C. Pat. "'A Motley Throng:' Social Change on Southwest China's Early Modern Frontier, 1700-1880." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 60 No. 1 (Feb., 2001): 67-94.
  • Gillette, Maris. "Violence, the State, and a Chinese Muslim Ritual Remembrance." The Journal of Asian Studies Volume 67 Issue 03 August 2008: 1011-1037.
  • Hostetler, Laura. Qing Colonial Enterprise, Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.
  • Ivanov, Andrey V. "Conflicting Loyalties: Fugitives and 'Traitors' in the Russo-Manchurian Frontier, 1651-1689." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 13 Number 5 2009: 333-358.
  • Jaschok, Maria and Shi, Jingjun. The History of Women's Mosques in Chinese Islam: A Mosque of Their Own. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000.
  • Lin, Hsiao-ting. "The Tributary System in China's Historical Imagination: China and Hunza, ca. 1760每1960." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Volume 19 Issue 04 October 2009: 489-507.
  • Miles, Steven B. "Imperial Discourse, Regional Elite, and Local Landscape on the South China Frontier, 1577-1722." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 12 Number 2 2008: 99-136.
  • Millward, James A. Beyond the Pass : Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Hardcover - 450 pages. Stanford University Press, 1998; ISBN: 0804729336.
  • Millward, James A. Eurasian Crossroads, A History of Xinjiang. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
  • Murata, Sachiko. Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light: Wang Tai-yi's "Great Learning of the Pure and Real" and Liu Chih's "Displaying the Concealment of the Real Realm". Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2000.
  • Newby, Laura J. The Empire and the Khanate: a Political History of Qing Relations with Khoqand c. 1760 - 1860. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
  • Nobuo, Kanda. "The Present State of Preservation of Manchu Literature," Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko26 (1968): 63-95.
  • Oyunbilig, Borjigidai. Zur ?berlieferungsgeschichte des Berichts 邦ber den pers?nlichen Feldzug des Kangxi Kaisers gegen Galdan (1696-1697). Tunguso- Sibirica 6. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1999.
  • Pang, Tatiana A. and Stary, Giovanni. New Light on Manchu Historiography and Literature: The Discovery of Three Documents in Old Manchu Script. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998.
  • Perdue, Peter C. "Empire and Nation in Comparative Perspective: Frontier Administration in Eighteenth-Century China." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 5 Number 4 2001: 282-304.
  • Rawski, Evelyn. The Last Emperors: A Social History of the Qing Imperial Institution. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998.
  • Rhoads, Edward. Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.
  • Seuberliche, Wolfgang (Walravens, Hartmut ed.). Zur Verwaltungsgeschichte der Mandschurei (1644-1930) [On the administrative history of Manchuria (1644-19301)]. Asien- und Afrika-Studien der Humboldt- Universitit zu Berlin, vol. 7. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001.
  • Shan, Patrick, Fuliang. "Ethnicity, Nationalism and Race Relations: The Chinese Treatment of the Solon Tribes in Heilongjiang Frontier Society, 1900 每 1931." Asian Ethnicity Jun2006 Vol. 7 Issue 2: 183-193.
  • Shan, Patrick Fuliang. "What Was the 'Sphere of Influence?' A Study of Chinese Resistance to the Russian Empire in North Manchuria, 1900-1917." The Chinese Historical Review Volume 13 Number 2 Spring 2006: 271-291.
  • Shih, Chuan-Kang. "Genesis of Marriage among the Moso and Empire-Building in Late Imperial China." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 60 No. 2 (May, 2001): 381-412.
  • Stolberg, Eva-Maria. "Interracial Outposts in Siberia: Nerchinsk, Kiakhta, and the Russo-Chinese Trade in the Seventeenth/Eighteenth Centuries." Journal of Early Modern History Volume 4 Numbers 3-4 2000: 322-336.
  • Wilson, Andrew R. Ambition and Identity: Chinese Merchant Elites in Colonial Manila, 1880 每 1916. Honolulu: University of Hawai*i Press, 2004.
  • Zhang, Shiming. "A Historical and Jurisprudential Analysis of Suzerain-Vassal State Relationships in the Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of History in China volume 1 number 1 January 2006: 124-57.
  • Catalogs exist for Manchu materials in the Library of Congress, Peking National Library, National Museum, Toyo Bunko.
  • Grand Council archives at the National Palace Museum have a lot of Manchu documents; Published: Lao Man wen yuan dang 老 滿 文 原 檔 (Annals for reigns of Nurhaci & Abahai)

-- The Writing of history during the Qing and the writing of Qing history

  • Chen, Hsi-Yuan. "The Making of the Official Qing History and the Crisis of Traditional Chinese Historiography." Historiography East and West Volume 2, Number 2, 2004: 173-204.
  • Chen, Qitai and Guo, Chengkang. "The Compilation of the Qingshi (Qing History) and Stylistic Innovation in Historiography."Chinese Studies in History Winter 2009/2010 Vol. 43 Issue 2: 33-54.
  • Dai, Yi. "The Origin of the Qingshi (Qing History) and Its Initial Planning." Chinese Studies in History Volume 43 Issue 2 Winter 2009/2010: 6-14,
  • Demieville, Paul. "Chang Hsueh-ch'eng and His Historiography," pp. 167-185 in Beasley, W.G., & E.G. Pulleyblank. Historians of China and Japan. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • Ding, Yizhuang. "Reflections on the 'New Qing History' School in the United States." Chinese Studies in History Volume 43 Issue 2 Winter2009/2010: 92-96.
  • Feng, Erkang. "Studies of Qing History." Chinese Studies in HistoryVolume 43 Issue 2 Winter2009/2010: 20-32,
  • Hummel, Arthur, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943.
  • Ho Yu-shen. "(Ch'ing) Historians and their Major Works," pp. 121-44 in his Elements of Chinese Historiography. Holleywood: W.M. Hawley, 1955. (Taipei reprint).
  • Liu, Xuezhao. "My Opinion on the Use of Style in Compiling the Qingshi (Qing History)." Chinese Studies in History Volume 43 Issue 2 Winter2009/2010: 55-72.
  • Naquin, Susan. "The Forbidden City Goes Abroad: Qing History and the Foreign Exhibitions of the Palace Museum, 1974-2004."T'oung Pao Vol. 90 Fasc. 4/5 (2004): 341-397.
  • Naito Torajiro. Shina shigaku shi 支 那 史 學 史 (History of Chinese Historiography), (Tokyo 1949).
  • Struve, Lynn. "Uses of History in Traditional Chinese Society: The Southern Ming in Ch'ing Historiography," PhD dissertation, 1974. Michigan.
  • ---. The Southern Ming 1644-1662. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.
  • ---, ed. and trans. Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
  • Wang, Q. Edward. "Qingshi (Qing History): Why a New Dynastic History?" Chinese Studies in History Volume 43 Issue 2 Winter 2009/2010: 3-5.
  • Yan, Jun. "The Compilation of the Qingshi and the Tradition of Chinese Historiography." Chinese Studies in History Volume 43 Issue 2 Winter2009/2010: 85-91.

-- Local & foreign archives

  • Provincial and district level archives: Read Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, pp. 156-58.
  • China: Many of the compendia published since 1949 have used local materials, particularly those edited by provincial or district level historical associations. See Feuerwerker & Cheng, passim, for this.
  • Guangdong province: 19th century. By chance preserved in London. See David Pong. A Critical Guide to the Kwangtung Provincial Archives Deposited at the Public Record Office of London. Harvard, 1975.
  • Other communications between the Chinese in Canton and the British have also been preserved in London. Read Dilip K. Basu, "Ch'ing Documents Abroad: From the Public Record Office in London," Ch'ing-shi wen-t'i 2:8 (1972) 3-30. Also: Chang Hsin-pao and Eric Grinstead, "Chinese Documents of the British Embassy in Peking, 1793-1911," JAS 22 (1963) 354-56.
  • Jiangsu: Wu Hsu archives. Letters and documents from Wu while he served as taotai in Jiangsu in the 1850s-60s. Some of these have been published. See F&C, pp. 83-84 for a description.
  • Hong Kong: New Territories. Formerly part of Hsin-an district, since 1898 part of Hong Kong. Good materials from 1899-1905 on land surveys and settlement of titles. (Not, strictly speaking, Chinese language archives.) See James Hayes, "Rural Society and Economy in Late Ch'ing: A Case Study of the New Territories of Hong Kong (Kwangtung)" CSWT 3:5 (1976) 33-71. Note also:A Catalog of Kwangtung Land Records in the Taiwan Branch of the National Central Library. Taipei, 1975.
  • Taiwan: Tamsui-Hsinchu Archives. Legal materials, 19th century. See Wang Shih-ch'ing & William Speidel, "An Introduction to Resources for the Study of Taiwan History," Ch'ing-shi wen-t'i 3:6 (1976) p. 100. See also David Buxbaum, "Some Aspects of Civil Procedure and Practice at the Trial Level in Tamsui and Hsinchu from 1789-1896," JAS 30 (1971) 255-79. The materials have been microfilmed and are widely available.
  • Taiwan: archives of the Governor Liu Ming-ch'uan, 1876-1895
  • Originals are in the Taiwan Provincial Museum. Two versions have been published. See Wang and Speidel article, p. 101.
  • Russia: For Chinese language materials (seemingly central government, Kuang-hsu reign) in the Institute of Oriental Studies, see HJAS 1:2 (1936) 264, for a summary of an article (in Russian) on the non-Buddhist part of the Chinese manuscripts in this institute. Documents mentioned include: "autobiographical notes" written by Kuo Sung-t'ao and reports by other governors.
  • Xujiahui cang shu lou Ming Qing Tian zhu jiao wen xian 徐 家 匯 藏 書 樓 明 清 天 主 教 文 獻 (Archives of Catholicism in Ming-Qing China from the Hsu-chia-hui [in Shanghai] Repository of Books), compiled and edited by Nicolas Standaert, Ad Dudink, Yi-long Huang, Pingyi Chu. Taipei: Fu-ren University Divinity School, 1996.
  • Local level materials appear to be part of the Tsung-li Yamen archives on missionaries and Christians, now being published in Taiwan.
  • Zhou, Ailian and Hu, Zhongliang. "The Project of Organizing the Qing Archives." Chinese Studies in History Volume 43 Issue 2 Winter2009/2010: 73-84.

Part IV: Qing Gazeteers

Gazetteers also exist for Sung, Yuan, Ming and Republican periods. See Chin En-hui and Hu Shu-chao, eds., Zhongguo di fang zhi zong mu ti yao   中 國 地 方 志 綜 目 提 要 (General digest of Chinese gazetteers). 3 vols (Taipei: Han-mei t'u-shu yu-hsien kung-ssu, 1996), which lists 8577 gazetteers geographically, with information on authorship, dating and contents.

Read:

  • Introduction to Irick catalog of gazetter reprints.
  • Leslie, Donald. "Local Gazetteers, " pp. 71-74 in Donald Leslie, C. Mackerras, & Wang Gungwu eds. Essays on the Sources for Chinese History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.
  • Nathan, Andrew J. Modern China, 1840-1972: An Introduction to Sources and Research Aids, Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1973, pp. 61-62.
  • Pritchard, Earl H. "Traditional Chinese Historiography and Local Histories," pp. 202-216 in H.V. White, ed. The Uses of History: Essays in Intellectual and Social History. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1968.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 114-119.
  • Will, Pierre-Etienne. Chinese Local Gazetteers: An Historical and Practical Introduction. Number 3 of Notes de Recherche du Centre Chine. Paris: EHESS, 1992. This can be ordered through: Centre Chine, 54 Bd. Raspail, 75006 Paris, FRANCE. Large portions of this were copied by Harriet T. Zurndorfer in her China Bibliography: A Research Guide to Reference Works about China Past and Present. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995.

Other good works:

  • Chang Kuo-kan. Zhongguo gu fang zhi kao 中 國 古 方 志 考 Shanghai, 1962. See Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 116.
  • Demieville, Paul. "Chang Hsueh-ch'eng and His Historiography," pp. 167-85 in Beasley, W.G. & E.G. Pulleyblank, Historians of China and Japan. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • Dow, Francis D. M. A Study of Chiangsu and Chechiang Gazetteers of the Ming. Canberra: Australian National University. Department of Far Eastern History, 1969.
  • Myers, R.H. "The Usefulness of Local Gazetteers for the Study of Modern Chinese Economic History: Szechwan during the Ch'ing and Republican Periods," Ch'ing-hua hsueh-pao 6: (1967): 72-102.
  • Nivison, David S. The Life and Thought of Chang Hsueh-ch'eng (1738-1801). Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966, pp. 213-244.

To locate gazetteers:

Studies:

  • Xie, Hongwei. "Text and Power: A Study on Local Gazetteers of Wanzai County of Jiangxi Province from the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China." Frontiers of History in China v. 4 no. 3 (September 2009): 426-59.
    • General Works
      • Chu Shih-chia, Zhongguo de fang zhi zong lu zeng ding 中 國 地 方 志 綜 錄 增 訂. Revised and enlarged version of his 1935 work, Shanghai 1958; reprinted, Taipei, Tokyo.
      • Ming dynasty: Wolfgang Franke, An Introduction to the Sources of Ming History Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1968, pp. 242-309. Lists all extant Ming gazetteeers.
      • Sung-Yuan: Song Yuan di fang zhi san shi qi zhong 宋 元 地 方 志 三 十 七 種. Taipei: Kuo-t'ai wen-hua shi-yeh yu-hsien-kung-ssu, 1980.
      • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, p. 117; Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 53; Feuerwerker, Albert, & S. Cheng. Chinese Communist Studies of Modern Chinese History. Harvard East Asian Monograph. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961, p. 240.
      • Reprint projects are now in progress in Taiwan & China. See catalogs.
    • Taiwan, Japan, Europe
      • Taiwan: Taiwan gong cang fang zhi lian he mu lu 臺 灣 公 藏 方 志 聯 合 目 錄, 1960. Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 55.
      • Japan: Chugoku chihoshi sogo mokuroku 中 國 地 方 志 總 合 目 錄. (Union catalog of Chinese local gazetteers in 14 major libraries and institutes in Japan). 1969. Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 55; Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1973, p. 118.
      • Europe: Yves Hervouet, Catalog des monographies locales chinoises dans les biblioteques d'Europe. Paris: Mouton, 1957.
    • Holdings of Particular Libraries
      • Guo li Beiping tu shu guan fang zhi mu lu 國 立 北 平 圖 書 館 方 志 目 錄. Peking 1933-36, 4 vols. Reprinted HK, 1968. Peking National Library. Teng, Ssu-yu, & Knight Biggerstaff. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works. Third Edition. Harvard-Yenching Institute Series. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 54.
      • Guo li gu gong bo wu yuan pu tong jiu ji mu lu 國 立 故 宮 博 物 院 普 通 舊 籍 目 錄. Taipei, 1970, pp. 70-185 lists gazetteers in Palace Museum collection.
      • Tsiang, Amy Ching-fen, & Hong Cheng, compilers. A Catalog of Post-1949 Chinese Local Histories at UCLA . L.A.: East Asian Library, UCLA, 1997.
      • Catalogs exist for the Libray of Congress (Chu Shih-chia ed.), the University of Washington (Joseph Low ed.), and the University of Chicago. Princeton University has an unpublished catalog of gazetteers -- check with the Chinese bibliographer.
      • Other library catalogs are listed in Donald Leslie. Catalog of Chinese Local Gazetteers. Canberra: Department of Far Eastern History. Research School of Pacific Studies. Australia National University, 1967. See Nathan, Andrew. Modern China 1840-1972: An Introduction to Sources and Research Aids. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1973, p. 62.

Part V: Memorials, edicts, & archives

Read:

  • Bartlett, Beatrice S. "Imperial Notations on Ch'ing Official Documents in the Ch'ien-lung and Chia-ch'ing Reigns." Two parts. National Palace Museum Bulletin 7:2 & 7:3 (1972).
  • ---. Monarchs & Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing China, 1723-1820. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. See pp. 103-19 for Bartlett's discussion of the development of the court letter and its drafting system, which supersedes earlier research.
  • ---. "The Secret Memorials of the Yung-cheng Period: Archival and Published Versions." National Palace Museum Bulletin 9:4 (1974).
  • ---. "Ch'ing Documents in the National Palace Museum Archives. Document Registers: The Sui-shou teng-chi." National Palace Museum Bulletin 10:4 (1975): 1-17. On the Document Registers: Sui shou deng ji 隨 手 登 記.
  • Fairbank, John K. Ch'ing Documents: An Introductory Syllabus. 3rd edition. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center of Harvard University, 1970.
    • pp. 82-84 on imperial injunctions
    • pp. 94-103 on published edicts
    • pp. 103-105 on published memorials
  • Kuhn, Philip A., & John K. Fairbank with the assistance of Beatrice Bartlett & Chiang Yung-chen.Introduction to Ch'ing Documents. Cambridge: The Harvard-Yenching Institute, 1993.
  • Lo Hui-min. "Some Notes on Archives on Modern China," pp. 203-20 in Donald Leslie, C. Mackerras, & Wang Gungwu eds. Essays on the Sources for Chinese History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.
  • Naquin, Susan. "True Confessions: Criminal Interrogations as Sources for Ch'ing History." National Palace Museum Bulletin 11:1 (1976).
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. The History of Imperial China: A Research Guide, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 142-45, 150-56.


In order to use archival material in published or unpublished form, it is necessary to understand the system that produced these documents. The basic ingredients of this system are:  edicts  (by the emperor) &  memorials  (from officials).

The most important change in this system occurred between 1700 and 1750 when the Grand Council [Jun ji chu軍 機 處] replaced the Grand Secretariat as the highest decision making body below the emperor, and when secret memorials to the emperor gradually reduced further the role of the Grand Secretariat. Grand Secretariat materials in Taiwan are housed at Academia Sinica. Many have been cataloged, some are published, and available to scholars. Grand Council materials in Taiwan are at the National Palace Museum. They are being cataloged, published, and are open to foreign scholars. The Palace Museum in Taiwan has recently expanded its archive building for Qing documents, and the Ming-Qing Archives at Academia Sinica, Taiwan, founded by Chang Wejen, has issued many important collections. For the Academia Sinica, Taiwan, collection, see:

A great deal of central government records survive in China. There is a Ming-Qing Archives Office at the western part [Xi hua men 西 華 門] of the National Palace Museum in Peking, and articles have appeared based on Grand Council type documents. For introduction to the materials there and elsewhere, see:

  • Qin Guojing 秦 國 經 , Zhonghua Ming Qing zhen dang zhi nan 中 華 明 清 珍 檔 指 南 (Guide to Chinese Ming-Qing precious archives), Beijing: Jen-min chu ban she, 1994. This guide was reprinted in May 1996. This works is an excellent survey of Ming-Qing archives both in and outside China and includes a valuable introduction to the holdings, internal organization, and usefulness of these archives.