If you want basic information and are not in the library: Decennial Census -- History
Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000
Index of Questions: https://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/index_of_questions/
If you want more detailed information:
Encyclopedia of the U.S. census. Margo J. Anderson, editor in chief. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2000.
Donald E. Stokes Library (SPR) HA37.U55 C66 2000
For a history of the census as both a political and a bureaucratic process:
The American census: a social history. Margo J. Anderson. New Haven: Yale University Press, c1988.
Firestone HA37.U55 A53 1988
Dubester’s U.S. census bibliography with SuDocs class numbers and indexes. Kevin L. Cook. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1996.
Data and Statistical Services (DSS). Firestone Z7553.C3 C66 1996
State censuses; an annotated bibliography of censuses of population taken after the year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States. Prepared by Henry J. Dubester. Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 
Trustee Reading Room Reference (DR): Z7554.U5 U63 1948
State census records. Ann S. Lainhart. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing, 1992.
Trustee Reading Room Reference (DR): Z5313.U5 L37 1992
Encyclopedia of American Immigration. Salem Press, 2010.
Very brief entries for every state, with a few references.
Trustee Reading Room Reference (DR): JV6465 .E53 2010.
A Companion to American Immigration. Edited by Reed Ueda. Malden, MA ; Oxford : Blackwell Pub., 2006.
Donald E. Stokes Library (SPR): JV6465 .C74 2006.