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Historical U.S. census and vital records

1830 census

12.9 million persons

Geography:

Publications: https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

  • Fifth census, or, Enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States, 1830: to which is prefixed, a schedule of the whole number of persons within the several districts of the United States, taken according to the acts of 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820: published by authority of an act of Congress. Data and Statistical Services (DSS): Decennial Census Oversize HA201 1830 1990f (reprint)
  • Fifth census; or, Enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States as corrected at the Department of State. 1830. Pub. by the authority of an act of Congress, under the direction of the Secretary of State. HA201 1830 A3e (Annex A)

1840 census

17 million persons

Geography: Add Michigan, Arkansas.

Publications: https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

  • Statistics of the United States of America, as collected and returned by the marshals of the several judicial districts, under the ... act for taking the sixth census; corrected at the Department of State. June 1, 1840. Published by authority of an act of Congress. Annex A, Forrestal: Locked Books (L) HA201.1840 .A2e
  • Sixth census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States, as corrected at the Department of state, in 1840. Published, by authority of an Act of Congress, under the direction of the secretary of state. Sixth census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States Data and Statistical Services (DSS): Decennial Census HA201 1840 1990f
  • Compendium of the enumeration of the inhabitants and statistics of the United States as obtained at the Department of State, from the returns of the sixth census, by counties and principal towns ... to which is added an abstract of each preceding census. Data and Statistical Services (DSS): Decennial Census HA201.1840 A1q
  • Census of pensioners for revolutionary or military services, with their names, ages, and places of residence, as returned by the marshals of the several judicial districts, under the act for taking the sixth census. 1081.921 (Rare Books) and http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS48227
  • Tucker, George. Progress of the United States in population and wealth in fifty years, as exhibited by the decennial census. RECAP HC105.T79 and Progress of the United States in population and wealth for fifty years, as exhibited by the decennial census [electronic resource]

1850 census

23.2 million persons

Geography: Add Florida, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin. Territories of California, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah.

Publications: https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

1860 census

31.4 million persons with 4 million slaves

Geography: Add California, Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas.

Publications: https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

  • Preliminary report on the eighth census. 1860. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1862. Data and Statistical Services (DSS): Decennial Census. Firestone Oversize HA201 1860 .A4q and Preliminary report on the eighth census, 1860 [electronic resource]
  • Population of the United States in 1860: compiled from the original returns of the eighth census. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1864. Data and Statistical Services (DSS): Decennial Census Oversize HA201 1860 .A3q and Population of the United States in 1860 [electronic resource]
  • Statistics of the United States, (including mortality, property, &c.) in 1860; compiled from the original returns and being the final exhibit of the eighth census, under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1866. Data and Statistical Services (DSS): Decennial Census. Oversize HA201 1860 .A5q and http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS48491
  • The United States on the eve of the Civil War: as described in the 1860 census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Civil War Centennial Commission: Government Printing Office, 1963. Donald E. Stokes Library (SPR) HA209 1860.A3
  • Note: the census of slaves and slaveholders was published in the agriculture volume, Agriculture of the United States in 1860, Firestone Oversize Oversize HD1753.1860 .A2q and online. There is a table for each state, “Slaveholders and Slaves,” listing all the counties and for each total slaveholders, total slaves, and then by groups from 1 slave to 1000+ slaves.