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Environmental Economics

International Environmental Data Sources - General

World Development Indicators. In addition to supplying economic and social data, environmental data including land use and agricultural production, energy production and use, and emissions. Data as early as 1960.

EDGAR: Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research provides global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants by country in some cases back to 1970.

Sage Data  includes data from the World Resources Institute (discontinued), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (weather data), the World Bank (global climate change), and the Environmental Protection Agency (air quality).

ProQuest Statistical Insight indexes statistical publications issued by the U.S. Government, international and inter-governmental organizations, and non-U.S. governmental sources including state governments, associations, commercial publishers, universities, and independent research organizations.

Environmental Data Explorer (United Nations Environment Programme Data portal)
International and regional data on many aspects of the environment including agriculture, air quality, biodiversity, coral reefs, ecosystems, endangered and threatened species, emissions, erosion, forests, human settlements, land use, ozone, pesticides, and weather.

International Energy Agency. (for data see individual links below)
Detailed international data on coal, electricity, natural gas, oil, renewables, carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion, energy prices and taxes, energy technology research and development, world energy statistics and balances, and forecasts from energy policies.  Data has been archived as of February 28, 2024.

International Monetary Fund. Climate Change Dashboard.

World Bank. Data and Statistics. Environment.
Various international, regional, and country data on various aspects of the environment including IPPS Pollution Intensity and Abatement Cost Datasets.

Energy Statistics Yearbook.  Annual compilation of internationally comparable statistics summarizing world energy trends, which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. Annual data for 224 countries and areas are presented on production, trade and consumption of energy for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, electricity, and heat. Per capita consumption series are also provided for all energy products. Special tables of interest include: international trade tables for coal, crude petroleum and natural gas by partner countries; selected series of statistics on renewables and wastes; refinery distillation capacity; and a table on selected energy resources. For older issues see the paper in the United Nations Collection XVII.series J.  Data from 1990+ are available in the Energy Statistics Database of the UNData portal.  For 1950-2016, see Energy Statistics Database 1950-2016.

World Resources Institute is an environmental think tank whose mission is "to move human society to live in ways that protect Earth's environment and its capacity to provide for the needs and aspirations of current and future generations". Flagship publication is World Resources Report which provided an overview of environmental trends. Includes many data tables. Final print edition (2008) in (DR) S900.W67. Older editions in Firestone. Site includes datasets.

MSCI ESG Corporate Governance MetricsLeading authority on socially conscious investment research on the environment, social issues, and corporate governance. Data coverage is international. Continues in part MSCI ESG KLD Stats (1991-2019) which covered the Domini Social 400 companies,   KLD was domestic USA only. For the constituents of the DS400 (inception through November 7, 2008) see the DSS page.  

Center for International Earth Science Information Network. Provides data and other information on the changing relationship between human beings and the environment.

Air Pollution in World Cities 2000, PM10 Concentrations.

Anthropogenic Biomes also known as "anthromes" or "human biomes", describe the terrestrial biosphere in its contemporary, human-altered form using global ecosystem units defined by patterns of sustained direct human interaction. Ellis and Ramankutty (2008) delineate 21 anthropogenic biomes based on population density, land use and vegetation cover. The anthropogenic biomes are grouped into six major categories -- dense settlements, villages, croplands, rangeland, forested and wildlands. Provides access to the spatial data sets described in their 2008 paper presented in Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8):439-447 Users can download the data as one global grid or a grid for each of the 6 populated continents. Data are available in raster GeoTiff and GRID formats.


Center for International Earth Science Information Network . Provides data and other information on the changing relationship between human beings and the environment.

Centre for PRTR Data.  Includes PRTR (Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers; USA version is the Toxic Release Inventory - TRI) data from as many OECD countries as practicable and feasible (currently most OECD countries and Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Malta, Romania,  Serbia). PRTR data included in this database is compiled on a national or regional level.

Climate Change Data (World Bank).  Data from World Development Indicators and Climate Change Knowledge Portal on climate systems, exposure to climate impacts, resilience, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use.

Climate Change Knowledge Portal: Ensemble Projections.  “Ensemble” temperature and precipitation data are derived from multiple global circulation models (GCMs). The ensemble data depict the range (10th percentile, median and 90th percentile) of model outputs run under each of two scenarios, A2 and B1, for four future time periods. The first listed download contains data aggregated to the country level; the remaining downloads are gridded data in shapefile format.

Climate Change Knowledge Portal: Historical Data. Contains historical temperature and precipitation data aggregated from 2-degree gridded data to the country and basin levels.

Excel file for RICE model as of April 26, 2010.  Examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the RICE model (Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy). New projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 degrees C or less in an efficient manner.

Environmental Performance of Agriculture.  Part of OECD iLibrary's Agricultural Statistics.  Provides the latest and most comprehensive data across OECD countries on the environmental performance of agriculture since 1985. Data include figures on crop production, agricultural land area under certified organic farm management, transgenic crops, fertilizers, direct on-farm energy consumption, moderate to severe water erosion risk, CH4 emissions and share of CO2 in total national GHG emissions.

FLUXNET Data Sets. Long-term measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy exchange from a variety of worldwide ecosystems integrated into consistent, quality assured, documented data sets.

Gems Water:  Freshwater Quality Database.  Designed to provide access to surface and groundwater quality data and statistics collected from the GEMS/Water Global Network

Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) Air Pollution Exposure Estimates 1990-2019
Estimated the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors for 204 countries and territories and selected subnational locations. Contains air pollution exposure estimates for ozone pollution, ambient particulate matter pollution, and household air pollution by year for 1990 to 2019. Population-weighted exposure summary files are provided for all air pollution risk factors, and gridded exposure files are provided for ozone and ambient particulate matter pollution. Estimates of disease burden attributable to air pollution risks are available through the GBD Results Tool.

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data (GHG).  Contains the most recently submitted information, covering the period from 1990 to the latest available year, to the extent the data have been provided. The GHG data contain information on anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of the six principal GHGs (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET).  World's largest database for water and sanitation utilities performance data.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeAssesses scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Distributed Active Archive Center. Net Primary Productivity Data Sets.  NPP (net primary production) data from existing field measurements are being compiled for approximately 100 study sites covering several major world ecosystem types. These data are used by global change modelers to develop and validate models of vegetation-soil-atmosphere interactions within the global carbon cycle and to help calibrate remote sensing of vegetation worldwide.

Polar Data Catalogue. Repository of metadata and data that describes and provides access to diverse data sets generated by Arctic and Antarctic researchers.

Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations
Provides a global data set of point locations and attributes describing nuclear power plants and reactors.

RepRisk ESG Data on 55,000+ public and private companies, from all countries and sectors. Project-level data (14,000+) including mines, pipelines, factories, etc. Unique perspective on company performance and risk exposure – based on media, stakeholders, and 3rd party sources in 15 languages for environmental, social, and governance issues. Environmental issues include global pollution (including climate change and GHG emissions), impacts on ecosystems/landscapes, local pollution, overuse and wasting of resources, products (health and environmental issues), waste issues, and other environmental issues.  Available through WRDS.  2007+.

State of the World Worldwatch Institute publication that focuses on sustainable economies. (DR) HD59.S82

Vital Signs Worldwatch Institute publication in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme. GE150.W675 (Current Volume in Trustee Reading Room Reference (DR): Firestone) Includes data and essays on the environment.

Water Point Data Exchange. The WPDx Data Standard was collaboratively designed for data collection from rural areas at the water point or small water scheme level. The core parameters included in the WPDx Data Standard are parameters which are commonly measured by governments, non-governmental organizations, and researchers to enable easy sharing without changing the types of data typically collected.

World Health Organization.  Statistics and information on indoor ambient and household air pollution; water,  the Health and Environmental Linkages Initiative; and chemical safety.

World Input-Output Database (WIOD).  Consists of time series of world input-output tables and international supply and use tables; national input-output tables and national supply and use tables; socio-economic accounts; and environmental accounts for 43 countries for 2000 to 2014.

Worldwatch Global Trends. Worldwatch Institute CD-ROM with historical data (sometimes going back to the 1600s) on ecosystems, diversity, agriculture, food, water, energy, climate, and pollution. DSS Study Number 5108.

Earthquakes and other Disasters

World Disasters Report. Includes information and statistics on droughts, famines, aid, emergency relief, numbers of disasters, amount of damages, refugees and asylum seekers. HV55.W67 -- 1993-2009.  2000+ Online.

Significant Earthquake Database Contains information on destructive earthquakes from 2150 B.C. to the present that meet at least one of the following criteria: Moderate damage (approximately $1 million or more), 10 or more deaths, Magnitude 7.5 or greater, Modified Mercalli Intensity X or greater, or the earthquake generated a tsunami.

Significant Earthquakes of the World. Earthquakes of magnitude 6.5 or greater or ones that caused fatalities, injuries or substantial damage since 1900.

EM-DAT International Disasters Database contains essential core data on the occurrence and effects of over 18,000 mass disasters in the world from 1900 to present.

Storm Events Database.  (NOAA). 1950+.  Contains the records used to create the official NOAA Storm Data publication, documenting: (1) The occurrence of storms and other significant weather phenomena having sufficient intensity to cause loss of life, injuries, significant property damage, and/or disruption to commerce; (2) Rare, unusual, weather phenomena that generate media attention, such as snow flurries in South Florida or the San Diego coastal area; and (3) Other significant meteorological events, such as record maximum or minimum temperatures or precipitation that occur in connection with another event.

United States Geological Survey.  Earthquake Hazards Program.  International data on earthquakes.

Examples of International Environmental Microdata sources

Bicol Multipurpose Survey (BMS), 1978: [Philippines]
Bicol Multipurpose Survey (BMS), 1981: [Philippines]
Bicol Multipurpose Survey (BMS), 1983: [Philippines]
Bicol Multipurpose Survey (BMS), 1994: [Philippines]
Designed to assess the impact of the Bicol River Basin Development Project (BRBDP) on one of the poorest regions in the Philippines.

Ethiopia Nile Basin Climate Change Adaptation Dataset
Household survey in the Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. The household sampling frame developed to ensure representation for the Nile River Basin at the woreda (district) level regarding level of rainfall patterns in terms of both annual total and variation; the 4 classes of traditionally defined agro-ecological zones (AEZs) found in the basin; vulnerability of food production systems (through the proxy of frequency of food aid in the past 10 years); and irrigation prevalence.

Harris 1989 environmental survey in four continents
"This survey focuses on the state of the world's environment. It probes the concerns of people living in different parts of the world about their own environment and perceived inter-dependent problems on a more global basis. Supported by financial aid from several governments and organizations, the UNEP ask Harris and Associates to conduct surveys across 4 continents and within 16 countries. In each country (except the US), there were two distinct samples; a leader sample and a general public sample -- for a total of 31 files. In the US there was only the public sample. As more funds are made available, other countries will be included. To date, the survey covers the following countries: Africa - (Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Zimbabwe); Asia and the Pacific - (China, India, Japan, Saudi Arabia); Latin America and the Caribbean - (Argentina, Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico); Eastern Europe - (Hungary); Western Europe and North America - (Norway, West Germany, and the United States). Among the items measured are awareness and perceptions of environmental issues, levels of concern about environmental issues, perceptions of causes of pollution and environmental degradation, attitudes to global and regional interdependence, and attitudes toward possible policies."

South Africa Limpopo Basin Climate Change Adaptation Dataset
Household survey conducted as part of a project aimed to provide policymakers and stakeholders in South Africa with tools to better understand, analyze, and form policy decisions to adapt to global change.

Wolong Household Study [China] investigated household-environment dynamics in the Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) of Wolong Nature Reserve (WNR), the "flagship" reserve designated for conserving the world-famous endangered Giant Pandas of China. The overall research questions include: (1) how demographic and socioeconomic processes at the household level, e.g. those related to family structures and livelihood systems, affect local residents' resource exploitation patterns and land use practices; (2) how local residents respond to shifts in government policy, especially the implementation of two nationwide conservation programs, the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP), in WNR; and (3) how household and policy dynamics interact to affect the natural environment of WNR. Example hypotheses tested in this study concerned: (1) the effects of conservation policies on local households' energy consumption patterns and fuelwood collection behaviors; (2) the connection between a household's demographic and socioeconomic background and its responses to conservation policies; (3) the relationships between social networks and labor migration; (4) the factors that affect a household's participation in nature-based tourism and the distribution of tourism benefits among different households; and (5) the potential implication of the processes described above on wildlife habitat change and conservation. The data collection in this study focuses on household demographics, household income and expenditure, fuelwood and electricity use, as well as the development of non-agricultural activities such as migration and tourism. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect yearly data of the previous year in 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2010 using highly structured survey questionnaires. A sample of 220 households originally drawn in 1999 was revisited in each year's survey.

UK Data Archive. Energy and Environment data

Also see additional DSS datasets on the environment/energy.