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Footnotes made easy: a guide for history majors

Books and journal articles: notes

Book.  The first time you cite a book, give the author's full name, the full title of the  book as it appears on the title page, the place of publication, the publisher's name, the date of publication, and page from which your material has been drawn.  Note that the publication data is enclosed in parentheses.  For example:

  • 1.  Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Robert Kennedy and His Times (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978), 231.

Multivolume Works.  When all the volumes in a multivolume work have the same title, a reference to pages within a single volume is given in the following manner.  (Note that the volume number is given in Arabic numerals and that the volume and page numbers are separated by a colon.)  For example:

  • 2.  James Schouler, History of the United States of America, under the Constitution (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1904), 4:121.

When each volume in a multivolume work has a different title, a reference to pages within a single volume is given as follows:

  • 3.  Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall, vol. 4, Statesman, 1945-1959 (New York: Viking, 1987), 31.

Article in a Scholarly Journal.  For the first citation of an article, give the author's full name, the full title, and the name, volume number, month and year, and page number of the journal or quarterly.  For example:

  • 4.  Edwin S. Gaustad, “The Theological Effects of the Great Awakening in New England,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 40 (March 1954), 690.

Subsequent Citation.   Subsequent citations of the same book or article should give only the author's last name and an abbreviated (short) title.  For example:

  • 5.  Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy, 295.
  • 6.  Gaustad, “Theological Effects of the Great Awakening,” 693-695.

Use of the Abbreviation “Ibid.”  If a footnote refers to the same source that was cited in the immediately preceding footnote, the abbreviation ibid. (for ibidem, which means “in the same place") may take the place of the author’s name, title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical.  For example:

  • 7.  Ibid., 699.

Collected Works.  In citing printed collected works such as diaries or letters, the author’s name may be omitted if it is included in the title.  The name of the editor follows the title, preceded by a comma and the abbreviation “ed.,” which stands for “edited by.” For example:

  • 8.  An Englishman in America, 1785, Being the Diary of Joseph Hudfield, ed. Douglas S. Robertson (Toronto: Hunter-Rose, 1933), 23.

Books and journal articles: bibliography

Examples

  • Campbell, Mildred, The English Yeoman under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1942.
  • Gaustad, Edwin S. "The Theological Effects of the Great Awakening in New England," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 40 (March 1954), 681-706.
  • Schouler, James. History of the United States of America, under the Constitution. 6 vols. Rev. ed. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1904.
  • Hudfield, Joseph. An Englishman in America, 1785, Being the Diary of Joseph Hudfield. Edited by Douglas S. Robertson. Toronto: Hunter-Rose, 1933.
  • Rigby, David Joseph. “The Combined Chiefs of Staff and Anglo-American Strategic Coordination in World War II.” Ph.D. dissertation, Brandeis University, 1996.

Web sites

Web Site.  Include as much of the following information as is available: author, title of the site, sponsor of the site, and the site’s URL.  When no author is named, treat the sponsor as the author.  For example:

  • 9. Kevin Rayburn, The 1920s, http://www.louisville.edu/~kprayb01/1920s.html.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not advise including the date that you accessed a Web source, but you may provide the date after the URL if the cited material is time sensitive.