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Literature Searches for Animal Testing Alternatives

Literature Searches for Animal Testing Alternatives


Welcome to the research guide for Literature Searches for Animal Testing Alternatives

    Why search for alternatives?

    The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations require principal investigators to consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals and provide a written narrative of the methods used and sources consulted to determine the availability of alternatives, including refinements, reductions, and replacements.


    The Three Rs

    Substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
    Minimize number of animals used.
    Use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.

    "...the performance of a database search remains the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures." The database search narrative must, at a minimum, include:

    • Names of the databases/web sites searched
    • Date the search was performed
    • Period covered by the search
    • Key words and/or the search strategy used

    Policy #12: Consideration of Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures
    From the USDA Animal Care Resource Guide

    Workshop in Brief: Reproducibility Issues in Research with Animals and Animal Models