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African American Studies: Civil Rights

Digital Collections

Civil Rights during the Bush Administration Civil Rights during the Bush Administration: Subject File of the White House Office of Records Management, 1989-1993, documents civil rights legislation and other human rights issues from 1989-1993. The collection is organized according to the White House Office of Records Management filing system. The documents cover the following categories: human rights, equality, education, employment, ethnic origin groups, right to housing, voting rights, women, freedoms, civil disturbances, genocide, and ideologies.

 

Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section A  Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section A, compiles a large set of documents on significant civil rights issues, events, and personalities during the 1977-1981 presidency of Jimmy Carter. Reflecting the concern by both administration officials and minority group leaders that economic discrimination had become the most important manifestation of racial prejudice, the collection includes as much material on employment and minority business as on social topics like education and housing.

 

Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section B  Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section B compiles a large set of documents on significant civil rights issues, events, and personalities during the 1977-1981 presidency of Jimmy Carter. The focus of the documents is on both positive and negative aspects: equal opportunity on the one side, entrenched discrimination on the other.

 

Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section C  Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section C brings together a large set of documents on significant civil rights issues, events, and personalities during the 1977-1981 presidency of Jimmy Carter.

 

Civil Rights during the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section D  Civil Rights During the Carter Administration, 1977-1981, Part 1: Papers of the Special Assistant for Black Affairs, Section D compiles a large set of documents on significant civil rights issues, events, and personalities during Jimmy Carter's presidency. Reflecting the concern by administration officials and minority group leaders that economic discrimination had become the leading manifestation of racial prejudice, the collection includes as much material on employment and minority business as on social topics like education and housing. 

 

Civil Rights during the Eisenhower Administration, Part 1: White House Central Files, Series A, School Desegregation  Civil Rights During the Eisenhower Administration, Part 1: White House Central Files, Series A: School Desegregation brings together a large amount of material on the civil rights issues, events, and personalities that rose to prominence during the 1953-1961 presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, a critical period in the history of the civil rights movement in the United States. 

 

Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, 1963-1969, Part I: The White House Central Files  The purpose of the new series, Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, is to gather a selection of major documents from three key types of records at the Johnson Library--White House Central Files and Aides Files, the Administrative History of an important agency, and oral histories--and to make these readily available to scholars everywhere. 

 

Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, 1963-1969, Part II: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: Administrative History  Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, 1963-1969, Part II: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: Administrative History consists of two sets of files on the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) from the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library: administrative history files and White House Central Files. The White House Central Files are further broken down into federal correspondence, files of Bill Moyers, and files of George Reedy. The collection contains mainly reports, correspondence, studies, and hearing transcripts. 

 

Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, 1963-1969, Part III: Oral Histories  Interviews with a large number of civil rights advocates--including Charles Evers, James Farmer, Aaron Henry, Clarence Mitchell, Joseph Rauh, Bayard Rustin, Roy Wilkins, Andrew Young, and Whitney Young--portray events from a vantage point away from Washington and provide a measure of Johnson's performance by representatives of the civil rights movement which stirred presidential action in the first place. 

 

Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, 1963-1969, Part IV. Papers of the White House Conference on Civil Rights  The White House Conference on Civil Rights occurred at a crossroads for the civil rights movement and the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson. Originally conceived in mid-1965 by the president and his advisers at the height of cooperation between civil rights workers and the federal government, the conference was held a year later during deteriorating relations between activists and Washington.  

 

Civil Rights during the Johnson Administration, 1963-1969, Part V: Records of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (Kerner Commission)  Records of the National Commission on Civil Disorders (Kerner Commission) include transcripts and background material of Commission meetings and Commission and staff subject [office] files. The addenda includes a copy of the Final Report, copies of Army After Action Reports, and previously restricted material from the Office of Investigations--City Files on Detroit. 

 

Civil Rights during the Kennedy Administration, 1961-1963, Part 1: The White House Central Files and Staff Files and the President's Office Files  The White House Central Files were designed as a reference service for the president and his staff to document White House activities. The Central Files consist of four major components: the Subject File, the Name File, the Chronological File, and the Confidential File. The Name File is essentially an index to the Subject File. The Chronological File contains only copies of outgoing correspondence.  

 

Civil Rights during the Kennedy Administration, 1961-1963, Part 2: The Papers of Burke Marshall, Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights  This collection includes the following files: Chronological Correspondence File (February 1961-January 1965), Alphabetical Correspondence File and General Correspondence File (January 1961-December 1964), Special Correspondence File (July 1961-September 1964), Telephone Logs (February 1961-May 1965), Civil Rights Division Reports (1961-1964), Alabama File (1962-1964), Mississippi File (1962-1964), School File (1961-1964), Case Documents File, Civil Rights Act of 1964 File, and Subject File. 

 

Civil Rights during the Kennedy Administration, 1961-1963, Part 3: The Civil Rights Files of Lee C. White  This series deals with both civil rights in general and specific topics such as education, equal employment opportunity, and housing. It also contains material relating to activities of the Subcabinet Group on Civil Rights and meetings of various citizens' groups concerning civil rights.

 

Civil Rights during the Nixon Administration, 1969-1974, Part 1: The White House Central Files  The Subject File of the White House Central Files contains correspondence and reports pertaining to the functions and operations of the White House; the federal government; and state, local, and foreign governments.  

 

Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government: Records of the Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division, 1958-1973  The Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government: Records of the Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division, 1958-1973 highlights attempts by the federal government to combat civil rights infringements and violations from 1958 to 1973, with some files dating back to 1918. 

 

Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government, Records of the Interstate Commerce Commission on Discrimination in Transportation, 1961-1970  This collection includes more than 300 case files of informal complaints that the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) investigated and in many cases sought to remedy through the Commission's Bureau of Enforcement.  

 

Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government: Records of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Police-Community Relations in Urban Areas, 1954-1966  The collection includes reports on police brutality, false arrests, police inaction, race relations, and police training programs in cities including Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, and St. Louis. Organizations represented in the documents include the Congress of Racial Equality, NAACP, and American Civil Liberties Union.  

 

Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government: Records of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, School Desegregation in the South, 1965-1966.  This collection brings together a large number of documents on the implementation of "freedom of choice" school desegregation plans in the South and bordering states. 

 

Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government: Records of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Special Projects, 1960-1970  This collection brings together a large set of Commission on Civil Rights documents on significant civil rights issues mainly during the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson administrations. 

 

Department of Justice Classified Subject Files on Civil Rights, 1914-1949  This collection of Department of Justice files on civil rights offers a glimpse into the minds of ordinary men and women, both black and white, in the first half of the twentieth century. Ranging from 1911 until 1943, the documents center broadly on the practice of lynching and specifically upon the thousands of letters written to protest this form of extralegal "punishment." The core of the collection consists of two bundles of letters to the president, covering 1911-1941 and 1921-1940.

 

Fannie Lou Hamer: Papers of a Civil Rights Activitist, Political Activitist, and Woman  Fannie Lou Hamer was an voting rights activist and civil rights leader. She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi Freedom Summer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and later became the Vice-Chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, attending the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in that capacity. Her plain-spoken manner and fervent belief in the Biblical righteousness of her cause gained her a reputation as an electrifying speaker and constant activist of civil rights.

 

Fight for Racial Justice and the Civil Rights Congress The Civil Rights Congress (CRC) was established in 1946 to, among other things, "combat all forms of discrimination against…labor, the Negro people and the Jewish people, and racial, political, religious, and national minorities." The CRC arose out of the merger of three groups with ties to the Communist Party, the International Labor Defense (ILD), the National Negro Congress, and the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. CRC campaigns helped pioneer many of the tactics that civil rights movement activists would employ in the late 1950s and 1960s. The CRC folded in 1955 under pressure from the U.S. Attorney General and the House Un-American Activities Committee, which accused the organization of being subversive.

 

James Meredith, J. Edgar Hoover, and the Integration of the University of Mississippi  In the fall of 1962 the college town of Oxford, Mississippi, erupted in violence. At the center of the controversy stood James Meredith, an African American who was attempting to register at the all-white University of Mississippi, known as "Ole Miss." Meredith had the support of the federal government, which insisted that Mississippi honor the rights of all its citizens, regardless of race. Mississippi’s refusal led to a showdown between state and federal authorities and the storming of the campus by a segregationist mob. Two people died and dozens were injured. In the end, Ole Miss, the state of Mississippi, and the nation were forever changed. 

 

Papers of the NAACP, Part 01: Meetings of the Board of Directors, Records of Annual Conferences, Major Speeches, and Special Reports  This collection consists of six sections: the Minutes of the Board of Directors Meetings, 1909-1950; Monthly Reports of NAACP Officers, 1918-1950; Annual Conference Proceedings, 1910-1950; Proceedings of the Annual Business Meetings, 1912-1950; and Special Correspondence, 1910-1939. 

 

Papers of the NAACP, Part 03: The Campaign for Educational Equality, Series A: Legal Department and Central Office Records, 1913-1940  The documents in this collection are organized into three sections: Administrative File (three series), Legal File (five series), and Addendum File (five series). Material in the Administrative File deals with discrimination in education, discrimination in teachers' salaries, and other general educational issues. 

 

President Truman's Committee on Civil Rights  President Truman's Committee on Civil Rights spans the period from late 1946, leading up to President Truman's creation of the President's Committee on Civil Rights, established by Executive Order 9808 of December 6, 1946, through completion of the Committee's final report, "To Secure These Rights," in late 1947. 

 

Ralph J. Bunche Oral Histories Collection on the Civil Rights Movement  The Ralph J. Bunche Oral History Collection from the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center is a unique resource for the study of the era of the American civil rights movement. Included here are transcriptions of close to 700 interviews with those who made history in the struggles for voting rights, against discrimination in housing, for the desegregation of the schools, to expose racism in hiring, in defiance of police brutality, and to address poverty in the African American communities. 

 

The Bush Presidency and Development and Debate Over Civil Rights Policy and Legislation  This collection contains materials on civil rights, the development of civil rights policy, and the debate over civil rights legislation during the administration of President George H.W. Bush and during his tenure as vice president. Contents of this collection includes memoranda, talking points, correspondence, legal briefs, transcripts, news summaries, draft legislation, statements of administration policy (SAP’s), case histories, legislative histories and news-clippings covering a broad range of civil rights issues.

 

"We Were Prepared for the Possibility of Death": Freedom Riders in the South, 1961 

Freedom Riders were civil rights activists that rode interstate buses into the segregated South to test the United States Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia. Boynton had outlawed racial segregation in the restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. Five years prior to the Boynton ruling, the Interstate Commerce Commission had issued a ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company that had explicitly denounced the Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of separate but equal in interstate bus travel, but the ICC had failed to enforce its own ruling, and thus Jim Crow travel laws remained in force throughout the South.  Date range: 1961

 

 

Librarian for History and African American Studies

Steven Knowlton